• Ashok Pandey
  • Carlos R Soccol
  • Christian Larroche


Solid-state (substrate) fermentation (SSF) is generally defined as the growth of the micro-organisms on (moist) solid material in the absence or near-absence of free water. In recent years, SSF has shown much promise in the development of several bioprocesses and products. It seems that two terms, solid-state fermentation and solid substrate fermentation have often been ambiguously used. It would be logical only to distinguish these two terms. Solid substrate fermentation should be used to define only those processes in which the substrate itself acts as carbon/energy source, occurring in the absence or near-absence of free water; solid-state fermentation should define any fermentation process occurring in the absence or near-absence of free water, employing a natural substrate as above, or an inert substrate used as solid support.


Grape Seed Apple Pomace Protein Enrichment Cattle Feed Bioreactor Design 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashok Pandey
    • 1
  • Carlos R Soccol
    • 2
  • Christian Larroche
    • 3
  1. 1.Biotechnology DivisionNational Institute for Interdisciplinary Science & TechnologyTrivandrumIndia
  2. 2.Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology DivisionFederal University of ParanáCuritiba-PRBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratoire de Génie Chimique et Biochimique (LGCB)CUST-Université Biaise PascalAubière CedexFrance

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