New Perspectives for Therapy Choice

  • Anne- Catherine Andres
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 151)

Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process involving the successive accumulation of genetic mutations which provoke the initiation of uncontrolled growth, allow the cell to progress and lose differentiation capacity and eventually lead to transformation into the invasive, metastatic phenotype. Mutations can either lead to the inactivation of genes involved in growth suppression (tumor suppressor genes) or to the activation of growth promoting genes (oncogenes). Some mutations frequently affect the same gene in different individuals, such as the inactivation of BRCA-1 and -2 in heritable breast cancer [1] or the activation of c-ErbB2 in about 30% of spontaneous breast cancer [2]. Additional mutations, however, are not predictable and can occur in a broad variety of genes.


Breast Cancer Tumor Profile Spontaneous Breast Cancer Small Tumor Nodule Human Genome Sequencing Project 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



In thankful memory of Dr. Andrew Ziemiecki. The financial support of the Foundation for Clinical-Experimental Tumour Research is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical ResearchUniversity of BernCHSwitzerland

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