Advertisement

Micro and Nanopatterning for Bacteria- and Virus-Based Biosensing Applications

  • David Morrison
  • Kahp Y. Suh
  • Ali Khademhosseini

Abstract

Current technologies capable of rapidly and accurately detecting the presence of infectious diseases and toxic compounds in the human body and the environment are inadequate and new, novel techniques are required to ensure the safety of the general population. To develop these technologies, researchers must broaden their scope of interest and investigate scientific areas that have yet to be fully explored. Lithography is a common name given to technologies designed to print materials onto smooth surfaces. More specifically, micropatterning encompasses the selective binding of materials to surfaces in organized microscale arrays. The selective micropatterning of bacteria and viruses is currently an exciting area of research in the field of biomedical engineering and can potentially offer attractive qualities to biosensing applications in terms of increased sensing accuracy and reliability. This chapter focuses on briefly introducing the reader to the fundamentals of bacterial and viral surface interactions and describing several different micropatterning techniques and their advantages and disadvantages in the field of biosensing. The application of these techniques in healthcare and environmental settings is also discussed.

Keywords

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Bacterial Adhesion Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Soft Lithography Gold Substrate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barnett BJ and Stephens DS (1997) Urinary tract infection: an overview. Am J Med Sci 314: 245–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bonin P, Rontani JF, et al. (2001) Metabolic differences between attached and free-living marine bacteria: inadequacy of liquid cultures for describing in situ bacterial activity. FEMS Microbiol Lett 194: 111–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bos R, van der Mei HC, et al. (2000) Retention of bacteria on a substratum surface with micro-patterned hydrophobicity. FEMS Microbiol Lett 189: 311–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chaki NK, Vijayamohanan K (2001) Self assembled monolayers as a tunable platform for biosensor applications. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 17: 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheung CL, Camarero JA, et al. (2003) Fabrication of assembled virus nanostructures on templates of chemoselective linkers formed by scanning probe nanolithography. J Am Chem Soc 125:6848–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Costerton JW, Stewart PS, et al. (1999) Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science 284: 1318–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cowan SE, Liepmann D and Keasling JD (2001) Development of engineered biofilms on poly-L-lysine patterned surfaces. Biotechnology Letters 23: 1235–1241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cullum BM and Vo-Dinh T (2000) The development of optical nanosensors for biological measurements. Trends Biotechnol 18:388–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dill K, Stanker LH, Young CR (1999) Detection of Salmonella in poultry using silicon chip-based biosensor. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 41:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Doller G, Schuy W, et al. (1992) Direct detection of influenza virus antigen in nasopharyngeal specimens by direct enzyme immunoassay in comparison with quantitating virus shedding. J Clin Microbiol 30:866–9Google Scholar
  11. Dunn DA and Feygin I (2000) Challenges and solutions to ultra-high-throughput screening assay miniaturization: submicroliter fluid handling. Drug Discov Today 5: 84–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. English TJ and Hammer DA (2005) The effect of cellular receptor diffusion on receptor-mediated viral binding using Brownian adhesive dynamics (BRAD) simulations. Biophys J 88: 1666–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Falconnet D, Csucs G et al. (2006) Surface engineering approaches to micropattern surfaces for cell-based assays. Biomaterials 27:3044–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Franklin VJ, Bright AM, Tighe B (1993) Hydrogel Polymers and Ocular Spoilation Processes. Trends in Polymer Science 1:9–16Google Scholar
  15. Goldhar J (1995) Erythrocytes as target cells for testing bacterial adhesins. Methods Enzymol 253:43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hall RH (2002) Biosensor technologies for detecting microbiological foodborne hazards. Microbes Infect 4:425–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ismagilov RF, Ng JM, et al. (2001) Microfluidic arrays of fluid-fluid diffusional contacts as detection elements and combinatorial tools. Anal Chem 73: 5207–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ivanov AP and Dragunsky EM (2005) ELISA as a possible alternative to the neutralization test for evaluating the immune response to poliovirus vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines 4:167–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kingshott P, et al. (1999) Surfaces that resist bacterial adhesion. Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science 4: 403–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Koh WG, Revzin A et al. (2003) Control of mammalian cell and bacteria adhesion on substrates micropatterned with poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels. Biomedical Microdevices 5: 11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mao CB, Qi JF, Belcher AM (2003) Building Quantum Dots into Solids with Well-Defined Shapes. Advanced Functional Materials 13:648–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McDonald JC and Whitesides GM (2002) Poly(dimethylsiloxane) as a material for fabricating microfluidic devices. Acc Chem Res 35: 491–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moellering Jr. RC (1995) Past, present, and future of antimicrobial agents. Am J Med 99: 11S–18SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ng JM, Gitlin I et al. (2002) Components for integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems. Electrophoresis 23: 3461–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nicolella C, van Loosdrecht MC et al. (2000) Wastewater treatment with particulate biofilm reactors. J Biotechnol 80:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Park TJ, Lee KB et al. (2004) Micropatterns of spores displaying heterologous proteins. J Am Chem Soc 126:10512–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Prime KL and Whitesides GM (1991) Self-assembled organic monolayers: model systems for studying adsorption of proteins at surfaces. Science 252:1164–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Qian X, Metallo SJ et al. (2002) Arrays of self-assembled monolayers for studying inhibition of bacterial adhesion. Anal Chem 74:1805–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rainina EI, Efremenco EN et al. (1996) The development of a new biosensor based on recombinant E. coli for the direct detection of organophosphorus neurotoxins. Biosens Bioelectron 11:991–1000Google Scholar
  30. Razatos A, Ong YL et al. (1998) Molecular determinants of bacterial adhesion monitored by atomic force microscopy. Proc Natl Acad Sci, USA 95:11059–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Respess RA, Rayfield MA et al. (2001) Laboratory testing and rapid HIV assays: applications for HIV surveillance in hard-to-reach populations. Aids 15 Suppl 3:S49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rich JD, Merriman NA et al. (1999) Misdiagnosis of HIV infection by HIV-1 plasma viral load testing: a case series. Ann Intern Med 130: 37–9Google Scholar
  33. Roberts L (2006) Infectious disease. Polio experts strive to understand a puzzling outbreak. Science 312:1581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. St John PM, Davis R et al. (1998) Diffraction-based cell detection using a microcontact printed antibody grating. Anal Chem 70:1108–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Stewart PS and Costerton JW (2001) Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in biofilms. Lancet 358: 135–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Suh KY, Khademhosseini A et al. (2006) Direct Confinement of Individual Viruses within Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Nanowells. Nano Lett 6:1196–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Suh KY, Khademhosseini A et al. (2004) Patterning and separating infected bacteria using host-parasite and virus-antibody interactions. Biomed Microdevices 6:223–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Suh KY, Kim YS et al. (2001) Capillary force lithography. Adv Mater 13:1386–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Takayama S, McDonald JC et al. (1999) Patterning cells and their environments using multiple laminar fluid flows in capillary networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci, USA 96: 5545–5548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tran JH and Jacoby GA (2002) Mechanism of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci, USA 99:5638–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ulman A (1996) Formation and Structure of Self-Assembled Monolayers. Chem Rev 96:1533–1554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. van Elden LJ, Nijhuis M et al. (2001) Simultaneous detection of influenza viruses A and B using real-time quantitative PCR. J Clin Microbiol 39:196–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vidal O, Longin R et al. (1998) Isolation of an Escherichia coli K-12 mutant strain able to form biofilms on inert surfaces: Involvement of a new ompR allele that increases curli expression. J Bacteriol 180:2442–9Google Scholar
  44. Whiley DM and Sloots TP (2005) A 5′-nuclease real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of a broad range of influenza A subtypes, including H5N1. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 53:335–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Whitesides GM, Ostuni E et al. (2001) Soft lithography in biology and biochemistry. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 3: 335–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wickham TJ, Granados RR et al. (1990) General analysis of receptor-mediated viral attachment to cell surfaces. Biophys J 58:1501–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wood MJ and Moellering Jr. RC (2003) Microbial resistance: bacteria and more. Clin Infect Dis 36:S2–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Xia YN and Whitesides GM (1998) Soft lithography. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 37:551–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhao XM, Xia XN et al. (1996) Fabrication of three-dimensional micro-structures: Microtransfer molding. Advanced Materials 8:837–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Morrison
    • 1
  • Kahp Y. Suh
    • 2
  • Ali Khademhosseini
    • 1
  1. 1.Harvard–MIT Division of Health Sciences and TechnologyMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.School of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations