Antibodies and Immunoassays for Detection of Bacterial Pathogens

  • Padmapriya P. Banada
  • Arun K. Bhunia


Antibody, also known as immunoglobulin, is normally made in the body in defense of foreign antigen or invading pathogen. Highly specific biorecognition property of antibody with antigen has made antibody as one of the most indispensable molecules for broad application, not only in the diagnosis or detection but also in prevention or curing of diseases. Animals are routinely used for production of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies; however, recombinant and phage display technologies are being adopted to improve antibody specificity and to cut cost for antibody production. Available genome sequence of pathogens is also allowing researchers to find and select suitable target antigens for production of antibody with improved specificity. In recent years, however, demand for antibody is even greater as novel biosensor or nanotechnology-based methods continue to utilize antibody for analyte capture and interrogation. Conventional immunoassay methods such as lateral flow and enzyme-linked immunoassays, though lack sensitivity, are available commercially and are widely used. While biosensor-based methods such as time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay, chemiluminescence assay, electrochemical immunoassay, surface plasmon resonance sensor, fiber optic sensor, and microfluidic biochip have, in some cases, demonstrated improved sensitivity, they require further optimization with real-world samples. Furthermore, environmental stress and the growth media are known to affect the physiological state of microorganism and antigen expression, often rendering unsatisfactory signal response from immunoassays. Thus, one must understand the microorganisms’ response to these factors before designing an immunoassay to avoid false results. With the advent of microfluidics and nanotechnology, the adaptation of lab-on-chip concept in immunoassays will soon be a reality for near real-time detection of pathogens from food or clinical specimens.


Surface Plasmon Resonance Bacterial Pathogen Listeria Monocytogenes Phage Display Latex Agglutination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Padmapriya P. Banada
    • 1
  • Arun K. Bhunia
    • 1
  1. 1.Molecular Food Microbiology Laboratory Department of Food SciencePurdue UniversityWest Lafayette

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