Magnetic Techniques for Rapid Detection of Pathogens

  • Yousef Haik
  • Reyad Sawafta
  • Irina Ciubotaru
  • Ahmad Qablan
  • Ee Lim Tan
  • Keat Ghee Ong


In situations of widespread infectious disease an action that might result, the rapid diagnosis of pathogenic states will assist first responders in implementing prompt treatments, in a huge reduction in the number of illnesses and deaths. Currently available detection/diagnostic procedures are either time-consuming (8–48 h) and require enrichment and culturing of bacteria before testing, or provide only qualitative results. Magnetic immunoassay technology appears to have particularly superior performance over other immunodetection methods. A typical magnetic immunoassay entails a capture part and a detection part, between which the target is immobilized. The capture part of the immunoassay consists of magnetic particles functionalized to capture the target from the sample. The immobilized target is then sandwiched between the capture and detection complexes and subjected to a detection process that will provide accurate and rapid results, most of the time in a matter of minutes. Another important advantage that a sensitive magnetic immunoassay confers is the reduced volume of samples and reagents needed. This chapter discusses the elements associated with a magnetic immunoassay specifically designed for the rapid detection of pathogens. The chapter presents a review of the different techniques used in the synthesis and encapsulation of magnetic particles, as well as strategies for the immobilization and detection of the targeted pathogen. Several magnetic separation strategies are also discussed.


Magnetic Field Permanent Magnet Magnetic Force Magnetic Particle Magnetic Bead 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdel-Hamid I, Ivnitski D, Atanasov P and Wilkins E (1999) Flow-through immunofiltration assay system for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7. Biosens Bioelectron 14(3):309–316Google Scholar
  2. Annas GJ (2002) Bioterrorism, Public Health, and Civil Liberties. N. Engl J Med. 346 (17):1337–1342Google Scholar
  3. ANSYS Co. (1997) Product Literature, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Baibich MN, Broto JM, Fert A, Nguyen Van Dau F, Petroff F (1988) Giant Magnetoresistance of (001)Fe/(001)Cr Magnetic Superlattices. Physical Review Letters 61:2472–2475Google Scholar
  5. Baselt D, Lee GU, Natesan M, Metzger SW, Sheehan PE, Colton RJ (1998) A biosensor based on magnetoresistance technology. Biosens. Bioelectron. 13:731–739Google Scholar
  6. Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Scherris JC and Truck M (1966) Antibiotic susceptibility testing standardised single disk method.Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 45:493–496Google Scholar
  7. Bayliss CL (1999) Detection and Separation of Pathogens and their Toxins. In: MAFF Research Program FS 12, MAFF UK, Center for Applied Microbiology and Research, Porton DownGoogle Scholar
  8. Binasch G, Grünberg P, Saurenbach F and Zinn W (1989) Enhanced Magnetoresistance in Layered Magnetic Structures with Antiferromagnetic Interlayer Exchange. Physical Review B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 39:4828–4830Google Scholar
  9. Blackburn C, Patel PD and Gibbs PA (1991) Separation and Detection of Salmonellae Using Immunomagnetic Particles. Biofouling 5:143–156Google Scholar
  10. Brewster JD and Mazenko RS (1998) Filtration capture and immunoelectrochemical detection for rapid assay of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J Immunol Methods 211:1–8Google Scholar
  11. Brinchmann JE, Gaudernack G, Thorsby E, Jonassen TO and Vartdal F (1989) Reliable isolation of human immunodeficiency virus from cultures of naturally infected CD4+ T cells. J. Virol. Methods 25:293–300Google Scholar
  12. Brinchmann JE, Albert J and Vartdal F (1991) Few infected CD4+ T cells but a high proportion of replication-competent provirus copies in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J. Virol. 65:2019–2023Google Scholar
  13. Brytting M, Wahlberg J, Lundberg J, Wahren B, Uhlen M, Sundqvist V-A (1992) Variations in the cytomegalovirus major immediate-early gene found by direct genome sequencing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:955–960Google Scholar
  14. Campbell P (1996) Permanent Magnet Materials and their applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Date) Update: Outbreaks of Cyclospora cayetanaensis infection—U.S. and Canada 1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 45: 611–612Google Scholar
  16. Chastellain M, Petri A and Hofmann H (2004) Particle size investigations of a multistep synthesis of PVA coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles. J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 278:353–360Google Scholar
  17. Chatterjee J, Haik Y and Chen CJ (2001a) Modification and characterization of polystyrene-based magnetic microsperes and comparison with albumin-based magnetic microspheres J Mag Mag Mat. 225:21–29Google Scholar
  18. Chatterjee J, Haik Y and Chen C-J (2001b) Synthesis and characterization of heat-stabilized albumin magnetic microspheres Colloid Poly Sci. 279:1073–1081Google Scholar
  19. Chatterjee J, Haik Y and Chen C-J (2003) Size dependent magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles J Mag Mag Mat, 257:113–118Google Scholar
  20. Chemla YR, Grossman HL, Lee TS, Clarke J, Adamkiewicz M and Buchanan BB (1999) A new study of bacterial motion: superconducting quantum interference device microscopy of magnetotactic bacteria. Biophysical Journal 76:3323–3330Google Scholar
  21. Chen T, Lei JD and Tong AJ (2005) Immunosorbent assay microchip system for analysis of human immunoglobulin G on MagnaBind carboxyl derivatized beads. Luminescence 20(4–5):256–60Google Scholar
  22. Chou C, Tsai Y, Liu J, Wei JCC, Liao T, Chen M and Liu L (2001). The detection of the HLA-B27 antigen by immunomagnetic separation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay—comparison with a flow cytometric procedure. Journal of Immunological Methods 255:15–22Google Scholar
  23. Coffey KR, Hylton TL, Parker MA, Howard JK (1995) Thin Film Structures for Low Field Granular Giant Magnetoresistance. Scripta Metallurgica et Materialia 33:1593–1602Google Scholar
  24. Daughton JM, Bade PA, Jenson ML, Rahmati MMM (1992) Giant Magnetoresistance in Narrow Stripes. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 28:2488–2493Google Scholar
  25. Dorman JL and Fiorani D (1992) Magnetic Properties of Fine Particles. Publisher, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  26. Dorman JL, Fiorani D and Tronc E (1997) Magnetic relaxation in fine-particle systems. In: Prigogine I and Rice SA (eds) Advances in Chemical Physics, Vol. XCVIII. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 283–494Google Scholar
  27. Drancourt M, George F, Brouqui P, Sampol J and Raoult D (1992). Diagnosis of Mediterranean spotted fever by indirect immunofluorescence of Rickettsia conorii in circulating endothelial cells isolated with monoclonal antibody-coated immunomagnetic beads. J. Infect. Dis. 166:660–663Google Scholar
  28. Fannin PC, Charles SW (1994) On the Calculation of the Néel Relaxation Time in Uniaxial Single-Domain Ferromagnetic Particles. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 27:185–188Google Scholar
  29. Feldsine PT, Forgey RL, Falbo-Nelson MT and Brunelle S (1997) Escherichia coli O157:H7 Visual Immunoprecipitation assay: a comparative validation study. J. AOAC 80:43–48Google Scholar
  30. Feng PJ (1992) Commercial assay systems for detecting foodborne Salmonella: a review. Food Prot. 55:927–934Google Scholar
  31. Flynn ER, Bryant HC, Bergemann C, Larson RS, Lovato D and Sergatskov DA (2007) Use of a SQUID array to detect T-cells with magnetic nanoparticles in determining transplant rejection. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 311:429–435Google Scholar
  32. Frost JA, McEvoy MB, Bentley CA and Andersson Y (1995) An outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection associated with consumption of iceberg lettuce. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1(1): 26–29Google Scholar
  33. Fu L, Dravid VP, Klug K, Liu X and Mirkin CA (2002) Synthesis and patterning of magnetic nanostructures. European Cells and Materials Journal 3:156–157Google Scholar
  34. Fukuda S, Tatsumi H, Igimi S, Yamamot, S (2005) Improved bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay for the rapid detection of Salmonella in chicken meat samples. Lett Appl Microbiol. 41(5):379–384Google Scholar
  35. Fung DYC (1995) What’s needed in rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. Food Technol. 49:64–67Google Scholar
  36. Gehring AG, Patterson DL and Tu SI (1998) Use of a light-addressable potentiometric sensor for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Anal. Biochem. 258:293–298Google Scholar
  37. Gehring AG, Irwin PL, Reed SA, Tua S, Andreotti PE and Akhavan-Tafti HRS (2004) Enzyme-linked immunomagnetic chemiluminescent detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Immunol Methods 293(1–2):97–106Google Scholar
  38. Goldman ER, Mattoussi H, Anderson GP, Medintz IL and Mauro JM (2005) Fluoroimmunoassays using antibody-conjugated quantum dots. Methods Mol Biol. 303:19–34Google Scholar
  39. Gref R, Domb A, Quellec P, Blunk T, Muller RH, Verbavatz JM and Langer R (1995) The controlled intravenous delivery of drugs using PEG-coated sterically stabilized nanospheres. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 16 (2):215–233Google Scholar
  40. Grimes CA, Mungle CS, Zeng K, Jain MK, Dreschel WR, Paulose M and Ong KG (2002) Wireless magnetoelastic resonance sensors: a critical review. Sensors 2:294–313Google Scholar
  41. Grossman HL, Myers WR, Vreeland VJ, Bruehl R, Alper MD, Bertozzi CR, Clarke J (2003) Detection of Bacteria in Suspension by Using a Superconducting Quantum Interface Device. PNAS 101:129–134Google Scholar
  42. Grünberg P, Schreiber R, Pang Y (1986) Layered Magnetic Structures: Evidence for Antiferromagnetic Coupling of Fe Layers across Cr Interlayers. Physical Review Letters 57:2442–2445Google Scholar
  43. Gundersen SG, Haagensen I, Jonassen TO, Figenschau KJ, de Jonge N and Deelder AM (1992) Magnetic bead antigen capture enzyme-linked immunoassay in microtitre trays for rapid detection of schistosomal circulating anodic antigen. J. Immunol. Methods 148:1–8Google Scholar
  44. Gupta AK and Wells S (2004) Surface-modified superparamagnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery: Preparation, characterization, and cytotoxicity studie. IEEE Trans. In Nanobioscience 3(1):66–73Google Scholar
  45. Haik Y, Chen C-J, Chatterjee J and Kanuri S (2000) The use of biotinylated lectin for separating red cells from whole blood. Biomolecular Eng. 16(5):179Google Scholar
  46. Haik Y, Cordovaz M, Chen C-J and Chatterjee J (2002) Magnetic Immunoassay for Rapid Assessment of Acute Myocardial Infarction. European Cells and Materials 3:41–44Google Scholar
  47. Haik Y, Chatterjee J and Chen C-J (2005) Synthesis and stabilization of Fe-Nd-B nanoparticles by chemical method. J Nanoparticles Res. 7(6):675–679Google Scholar
  48. Hedrum A, Lundeberg J, Pahlson C and Uhlen M (1992) Immunomagnetic recovery of Chlamydia trachomatis from urine with subsequent colorimetric DNA detection. PCR Methods & Applications 2:167–171Google Scholar
  49. Heleg-Shabtai V, Katz E and Willner I (1997) Assembly of microperoxidase-11 and Co(II)-protoporphyrin IX reconstituted myoglobin monolayers on Au-electrodes: integrated bioelectrocatalytic interfaces. J Am. Chem. Soc. 119:8121–8122Google Scholar
  50. Hibi K, Abe A, Ohashi E, Mitsubayashi K, Ushio H, Hayashi T, Ren H and Endo H (2006) Combination of immunomagnetic separation with flow cytometry for detection of Listeria monocytogenes. Analytica Chemica Acta 573:158–163Google Scholar
  51. Islam D, Tzipori S, Islam M and Lindberg A (1993) Rapid detection of Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri in faeces by an immunomagnetic assay with monoclonal antibodies. A. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12:25–32Google Scholar
  52. Jeníková ZG, Pazlarova J and Demnerova K (2000) Detection of Salmonella in food samples by the combination of immunomagnetic separation and PCR assay Int Microbiol. 3(4):225–229Google Scholar
  53. Jain MK, Schmidt S and Grimes CA (2001) Magneto-acoustic sensors for measurement of liquid temperature, viscosity, and density. Appl. Acoustic 62:1001–1011Google Scholar
  54. Ji X, Zheng J, Xu J, Rastogi VK, Cheng T-C, DeFrank JJ and Leblanc RM (2005) (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots and organophosphorus hydrolase bioconjugate as biosensors for detection of paraoxon J. Phys. Chem. B. 109 (9):3793–3799Google Scholar
  55. Johne B, Jarp J and Haaheim LR (1989) Staphylococcus aureus exopolysaccharide in vivo demonstrated by immunomagnetic separation and electron microscopy. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:1631–1635Google Scholar
  56. Johnson JL, Brooke CL and Fritschel SJ (1998) Comparison of the BAX for screening/E. coli O157:H7 method with conventional methods for detection of extremely low levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 4390–4395Google Scholar
  57. Kapperud, G, Varund T, Skjerve E, Hornes E and Michaelsen TE (1993) Detection of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in food and water by immunomagnetic separation, nested polymerase chain reactions, and colorimetric detection of amplified DNA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:2938–2944Google Scholar
  58. Kapperud G, Rorvik LM, Hasseltvedt V, Hoiby EA, Iverson BG, Staveland K, Johnson G, Leitao J, Herikstad H, Andersson Y, Langeland G, Gondrosen B and Lassen J (1995) Outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection traced to imported iceberg lettuce. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 609–614Google Scholar
  59. Kim JW, Jin Cho LZ, Marquardat SH, Forhilch AA, Baidoo SK (1999) Use of chicken egg-yolk antibodies against K88{+} fimbrial antigen for quantitative analysis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88+ by a sandwich ELISA J. Sci. Food Agric. 79: 1513–1518Google Scholar
  60. Kittel C (1946) Physical theory of ferromagnetic domains. Phys. Rev. 70:965–971Google Scholar
  61. Lee GU, Metzger S, Natesan M, Yanavich C, Dufrěne YF (2000) Implementation of force differentiation in the immunoassay. Analytical Biochemistry 287(2):261–271Google Scholar
  62. Leonard P, Hearty S, Quinn J and O’Kennedy R (2004) A generic approach for the detection of whole Listeria monocytogenes cells in contaminated samples using surface plasmon resonance. Biosens Bioelectron. 19(10):1331–1335Google Scholar
  63. Loiselle KT and Grimes CA (2000) Viscosity measurements of viscous liquids using magnetoelastic thick-film sensors. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71:1441–1446Google Scholar
  64. Lund A, Hellemann AL and Vartdal F (1988) Rapid isolation of K88{+} Escherichia coli by using immunomagnetic particles. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:2572–2575Google Scholar
  65. Lund A, Wasteson Y and Olsvik O (1991) Immunomagnetic separation and DNA hybridization for detection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in a piglet model. J. Clin Microbiol. 29:2259–2262Google Scholar
  66. Mary M (1997) Applications of magnetic particles in immunoassays. In: Hafeli U, Schutt W, Teller J, Zborowski M (eds) Scientific and Clinical Applications of Magnetic Carriers. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  67. Matsunaga T, Kawasaki M, Tu X, Tsujimaura N and Nakamura N (1996) Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using bacterial magnetic particles. Anal. Chem. 68: 3551–3554Google Scholar
  68. Meyer MHF, Krause HJ, Hartmann M, Miethe P, Oster J and Keusgen M (2007a) Francisella tularensis detection using magnetic labels and a magnetic biosensor based on frequency mixing. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 311:259–263Google Scholar
  69. Meyer MHF, Stehr M, Bhuju S, Krause HJ, Hartmann M, Miethe P, Singh M and Keusgen M (2007b) Magnetic biosensor for the detection of yersinia pestis. Journal of Microbiological Methods 68:218–224Google Scholar
  70. Millen RL, Kawaguchi T, Granger MC, Porter MD (2005) Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors and Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles: A Chip-Scale Detection Strategy for Immunosorbent Assays. Anal. Chem. 77:6581–6587Google Scholar
  71. Mohamadi-Nejad A, Moosavi-Movahedi AA, Safarian S, Naderi-Manesh MH, Ranjbar B, Farzami B, Mostafavi H, Larijani MB and Hakimelah GH (2002) The Thermal Analysis of Nonezymatic Glycosylation of human serum albumin: differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism studies. Thermochimica acta 389:141–151Google Scholar
  72. Morgan JAW, Winstanley C, Pickup RW and Saunders JR (1991) Rapid Immunocapture of Pseudomonas putida Cells from Lake Water by Using Bacterial Flagella. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:503–509Google Scholar
  73. Morup S (1993) Studies of Superparamagnetism in Samples of Ultrafine Particles. In: Hernando A (ed) Nanomagnetism. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp 93–99Google Scholar
  74. Mulvaney SP, Mattoussi HM and Whitman LJ (2004) Incorporating fluorescent dyes and quantum dots into magnetic microbeads for immunoassays. Biotechniques 36(4):602–6, 608–609Google Scholar
  75. Mungle CS (2001) Optical detection of magnetoelastic sensors and the variable temperature response of the resonant frequency. Dissertation, University of KentuckyGoogle Scholar
  76. Nagasaki Y, Ishii T, Sunaga Y, Watanabe Y, Otsuka H and Kataoka K (2004) Novel Molecular Recognition via Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer Using a Biotin-PEG/Polyamine Stabilized CdS Quantum Dot. Langmuir 20(15):6396–6400Google Scholar
  77. Nagasaki Y, Kobayashi H, Katsuyama Y, Jomura T and Sakura T (2007) Enhanced immunoresponse of antiboy/mixed-PEG co-immobilized surface construction of high performance immunomagnetic ELISA system. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 309:524–530Google Scholar
  78. Olsvik O, Skjerve E, Hornes E et al. (1991) Magnetic separation techniques applied to cellular and molecular biology. In: Kemshead JT (ed) Clinical microbiology. Wordsmiths’ Conference Publications, Somerset, England, pp 207–221Google Scholar
  79. Olsvik O, Popovic T, Skjerve E, Cudjoe S, Hornes E, Ugelstad J and Uhlen M (1994) Magnetic separation techniques in diagnostic microbiology. Clinical Microbiol Rev. 7(1): 43–54Google Scholar
  80. Padhye NV and Doyle MP (1991) Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli of serotypes O157:H7 and O26:H11. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:99–103Google Scholar
  81. Perez FG, Mascini M, Tothill EI and Turner AP (1998) Immunomagnetic separation with mediated flow injection analysis amperometric detection of viable Escherichia coli O157. Anal. Chem. 70:2380–2386Google Scholar
  82. Pinaud F, Michalet X, Bentolila LA, Tsay JM, Doose S, Li JJ, Iyer G and Weiss S (2006) Advances in fluorescence imaging with quantum dot bio-probes. Biomaterials 27(9):1679–1678Google Scholar
  83. Rife JC, Miller MM, Sheehan PE, Tamanaha CR, Tondra M, Whitman LJ (2003) Design and Performance of GMR Sensors for the Detection of Magnetic Microbeads in Biosensors. Sensors and Actuators A 107:209–218Google Scholar
  84. Ruan G, Feng S and Li Q (2002) Effects of material hydrophobicity on physical properties of polymeric microspheres formed by double emulsion process. J of Controlled Release 84:151–160Google Scholar
  85. Ruan C, Wang H and Li Y (2002a) A bienzyme electrochemical biosensor coupled with immunomagnetic separation for rapid detection of escherichia coli O157:H7 in food samples. Trans. ASAE 45:249–255Google Scholar
  86. Ruan C, Yang L and Li Y (2002b) Immunobiosensor chips for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Anal. Chem. 74:4814–4820Google Scholar
  87. Ruan G and Feng S (2003) Preparation and characterization of poly(lactic acid)–poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(lactic acid) (PLA-PEG-PLA) microspheres for controlled release of paclitaxel. Biomaterials 24:5037–5044Google Scholar
  88. Ruan C, Zeng K, Varghese OK and Grimes CA (2003) Magnetoelastic immunosensors: amplified mass immunosorbent assay for detection of escherichia coli O157:H7. Anal. Chem. 75:6494–6498Google Scholar
  89. Safarik I and Safarikova M (2004) Magnetic techniques for the isolation and purification of proteins and peptides. BioMagn. Res. Technol. 2 (7):1–17Google Scholar
  90. Santra S, Yang H, Holloway PH, Stanley JT and Mericle RA (2005) Synthesis of water-dispersible fluorescent, radio-opaque, and paramagnetic CdS:Mn/ZnS quantum dots: a multifunctional probe for bioimaging. J Am Chem Soc. 127(6):1656–1657Google Scholar
  91. Seo KH, Brackett RE, Frank JF and Hilliard S (1998) Immunomagnetic separation and flow cytometry for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7. J. Food Prot. 61:812–816Google Scholar
  92. Sharma VK (2002) Detection and quantitation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, O111, and O26 in beef and bovine feces by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Food Prot. 65:1371–1380Google Scholar
  93. Skjerve E, Rorvik ML and Olsvik O (1990) Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in foods by immunomagnetic separation. Appl. Environ Microbiol. 56:3478–3481Google Scholar
  94. Skjerve E and Olsvilk O (1991) Immunomagnetic separation of Salmonella from foods. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 14:11–18Google Scholar
  95. Solaro R (2002) Nanostructured Polymeric Systems in Targeted Release of Proteic Drugs and in Tissue Engineering. Proceedings of China-EU Forum on Nanosized Technology, pp 225–244Google Scholar
  96. Stoyanov PG and Grimes CA (2000) A remote query magnetostrictive viscosity sensor. Sens. Actuators 80:8–14Google Scholar
  97. Tu S-I, Uknalis J, Irwin P and Yu LSL (2000) The use of streptavidin coated magnetic beads for detecting pathogenic bacteria by light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). J. Rapid Methods Autom. Microbiol. 8:95–109Google Scholar
  98. Vanderhoff JW, El-Aasser MS and Ugelstad J (1979) US Patent: 4,177,177Google Scholar
  99. Varshney M, Yang L, Su XL and Li Y (2005) Magnetic nanoparticle-antibody conjugates for the separation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in ground beef. J Food Prot. 68(9):1804–1811Google Scholar
  100. Vermunt AE, Franken AA and Beumer RR (1992) Isolation of salmonellas by immunomagnetic separation. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 72:112–118Google Scholar
  101. Vila A, Gill H, McCallion O and Alonso M (2004) Transport of PLA-PEG particles across the nasal mucosa: effect of particle size. J. of Controlled Release 98:231–244Google Scholar
  102. Volkov I, Gudoshnikov S, Usov N, Volkov A, Moskvina M, Maresov A, Snigirev O, Tanaka S (2006) SQUID-measurements of Relaxation Time of Fe3O4 Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles Ensembles. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 300: e294-e297Google Scholar
  103. Vote D, Doar O, Moon RE and Toffaletti JG (2001) Blood glucose meter performance under hyperbaric oxygen conditions. Clinica Chimica Acta 305:81–87Google Scholar
  104. Wang CW and Moffitt MG (2005) Use of Block Copolymer-Stabilized Cadmium Sulfide Quantum Dots as Novel Tracers for Laser Scanning Confocal Fluorescence Imaging of Blend Morphology in Polystyrene/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Films. Langmuir 21(6):2465–2473Google Scholar
  105. Wright DJ, Chapman PA and Siddons CA (1994) Immunomagnetic separation as a sensitive method for isolating Escherichia coli O157from food samples. Epidemiol. Infec. 113: 31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Yang L, Li Y (2005) Quantum dots as fluorescent labels for quantitative detection of Salmonella typhimurium in chicken carcass wash water. J Food Prot. 68(6):1241–1245Google Scholar
  107. Yang L and Li Y (2006) Detection of viable Salmonella using microelectrode-based capacitance measurement coupled with immunomagnetic separation. J Microbiol Methods 64: 9–16Google Scholar
  108. Yu H and Bruno JG (1996) Immunomagnetic-electrochemiluminescent detection of Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella typhimurium in foods and environmental water samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:587–592Google Scholar
  109. Zborowski M and Chalmers JJ (2005) Magnetic cell sorting. Methods Mol Biol. 295:291–300Google Scholar
  110. Zeng K, Ong KG, Mungle CS and Grimes CA (2002) Time domain characterization of oscillating sensors: application of frequency counting for resonant frequency determination. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73:4375–4380Google Scholar
  111. Zhao X and Shippy SA (2004) Competitive Immunoassay for Microliter Protein Samples with Magnetic Beads and Near-Infrared Fluorescence Detection. Anal Chem. 76(7):1871–1876Google Scholar
  112. Zhao L, Wu D, Wu L and Song T (2007) A simple and accurate method for quantification of magnetosomes in magnetotactic bacteria by common spectrophotometer. Journal of Biochem. Biophys. Methods 70:377–383Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yousef Haik
    • 1
  • Reyad Sawafta
    • 2
  • Irina Ciubotaru
    • 1
  • Ahmad Qablan
    • 3
  • Ee Lim Tan
    • 4
  • Keat Ghee Ong
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUnited Arab Emirates University Al Ain-UAE; Center of Research Excellence in Nanobioscience, University of North CarolinaGreensboroUSA
  2. 2.QuarTek Corporation GreensboroNorth CarolinaUSA
  3. 3.The Hashemite University ZarqaJordan
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical EngineeringMichigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA

Personalised recommendations