Modeling Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport and Exchange Using a Closed Loop Circulatory System

  • Brian E. Carlson
  • Joseph C. Anderson
  • Gary M. Raymond
  • Ranjan K. Dash
  • James B. Bassingthwaighte
Part of the Advances In Experimental Medicine And Biology book series (AEMB, volume 614)


The binding and buffering of O2 and CO2 in the blood influence their exchange in lung and tissues and their transport through the circulation. To investigate the binding and buffering effects, a model of blood-tissue gas exchange is used. The model accounts for hemoglobin saturation, the simultaneous binding of O2, CO2 , H+, 2,3-DPG to hemoglobin, and temperature effects [1,2]. Invertible Hill-type saturation equations facilitate rapid calculation of respiratory gas redistribution among the plasma, red blood cell and tissue that occur along the concentration gradients in the lung and in the capillary-tissue exchange regions. These equations are well-suited to analysis of transients in tissue metabolism and partial pressures of inhaled gas. The modeling illustrates that because red blood cell velocities in the flowing blood are higher than plasma velocities after a transient there can be prolonged differences between RBC and plasma oxygen partial pressures. The bloodtissue gas exchange model has been incorporated into a higher level model of the circulatory system plus pulmonary mechanics and gas exchange using the RBC and plasma equations to account for pH and CO2 buffering in the blood.


Permeability Surface Area Product Endothelial Surface Layer Carbon Dioxide Transport Relative Velocity Difference Partial Differential Equation Solver 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    R. K. Dash and J. B. Bassingthwaighte, Blood HbO(2) and HbCO(2) dissociation curves at varied O-2, CO2, pH, 2,3-DPG and temperature levels, Ann Biomed Eng 32(12), 1676–1693 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. K. Dash and J. B. Bassingthwaighte, Simultaneous blood-tissue exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and hydrogen ion, Ann Biomed Eng 34(7), 1129–1148 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. H. Bloch, A quantitative study of the hemodynamics in the living microvascular system, Am J Anat 110(2), 125–153 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Vink and B. R. Duling, Identification of distinct luminal domains for macromolecules, erythrocytes, and leukocytes within mammalian capillaries, Circ Res 79(3), 581–589 (1996).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. A. Goresky, A linear method for determining liver sinusiodal and extravascular volumes, Am J Physiol 204(4), 626–640 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. R. Lutchen, F. P. Primiano and G. M. Saidel, A non-linear model combining pulmonary mechanics and gas concentration dynamics, IEEEE Trans Biomed Eng 29(9), 629–641 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. S. Kassab, C. A. Rider, N. J. Tang and Y. C. B. Fung, Morphometry of pig coronary arterial trees, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 265(1), H350–H365 (1993).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. H. Lipowsky, S. Usami and S. Chien, Invivo measurements of apparent viscosity and microvessel hematocrit in the mesentery of the cat, Microvasc Res 19(3), 297–319 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. R. Duling and R. M. Berne, Longitudinal gradients in periarteriolar oxygen tension: A possible mechanism for participation of oxygen in local regulation of blood flow, Circ Res 27(5), 669–678 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. B. Bassingthwaighte, I. S. J. Chan and C. Y. Wang, Computationally efficient algorithms for convection-permeation-diffusion models for blood-tissue exchange, Ann Biomed Eng 20(6), 687–725 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Dalziel and J. R. P. O'Brien, The kinetics of deoxygenation of human haemoglobin, Biochem J 78(236–245 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. M. Vanderkooi, G. Maniara, T. J. Green and D. F. Wilson, An optical method for measurement of dioxygen concentration based upon quenching of phosphorescence, J Biol Chem 262(12), 5476–5482 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian E. Carlson
    • 1
  • Joseph C. Anderson
    • 1
  • Gary M. Raymond
    • 1
  • Ranjan K. Dash
    • 2
  • James B. Bassingthwaighte
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BioengineeringUniversity of WashingtonSeattle
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukee

Personalised recommendations