Advertisement

Life on the Move: Bioarchaeological Contributions to the Study of Migration and Diaspora Communities in the Andes

  • Tiffiny A. Tung

The study of ancient human migration has long been a notable aspect of anthropological research as scholars investigate why people opt, or are forced to move from their homeland to a new locale. Explanations vary widely, but according to Arutinov (2002: 89) the underlying motivation for most migrations, “including the most ancient ones, are…things are not going well for a people in their own homeland,” leading people to seek a better life in another place. Similarly, individuals and families may be drawn to an urban center in pursuit of new economic, social, political, or other kinds of opportunities. The potential push and pull factors for migration highlight a key path of inquiry worth exploring in the archaeological record. Why are people moved, or why do they opt to leave a familiar landscape filled with known kith and kin to venture to an unknown locale, often filled with strangers and customs different from one’s own? And how can researchers detect this movement in the archaeological record?

In this chapter, I discuss ways in which non-local (non-natal) individuals can be identified using data on skeletal morphology and the chemical composition of bones and teeth, and I discuss how they can be used to address questions about migration and diaspora communities in the ancient Andes. Archaeologists working in the Andes have examined the Inca policy of relocating groups of people and creating diaspora communities in the process (Bauer and Stanish 2001; D’Altroy 2002; Julien 2000) and have provided a thorough overview of how diasporas relate to ayllus and the vertical archipelago systems (Goldstein 2005). My focus is on an earlier time period: the Middle Horizon (AD 500–1000). I summarize bioarchaeological studies that document diaspora communities associated with the Tiwanaku and Wari states (Figure 34.1).

Keywords

Strontium Isotope Strontium Isotope Ratio Geological Zone Middle Horizon Annular Form 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arutinov, S. A., 2002, The diaspora as a process. Anthropology and Archaeology of Eurasia 41: 89–96.Google Scholar
  2. Bauer, Brian S. and Charles Stanish, 2001, Ritual and Pilgrimage in the Ancient Andes: The Islands of the Sun and the Moon. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  3. Berenguer, José and Percy Dauelsberg Hahmann, 1989, El norte grande en la órbita de Tiwanaku. In Culturas de Chile: Prehistoria Desde Sus Orígenes Hasta los Albores de la Conquista, edited by Jorge L. Hidalgo, Virgilio F. Schiappacasse, Hans F. Niemeyer, Carlos Aldunate del Solar, and Ivan R. Solimano, pp. 221–226. Editorial Andrés Bello, Santiago.Google Scholar
  4. Blom, Deborah E., 1999, Tiwanaku Regional Interaction and Social Identity: A Bioarchaeological Approach. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  5. Blom, Deborah E., 2005, Embodying borders: human body modification and diversity in Tiwanaku society. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 24:1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Browman, David L., 1978, Toward the development of the Tiahuanaco (Tiwanaku) state. In Advances in Andean Archaeology, edited by David L. Browman, pp. 327–349. Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
  7. Costa, María Antonietta and Agustín Llagostera, 1994, Coyo-3: Momentos finales del período medio en San Pedro de Atacama. Estudios Atacameños 11:73–108.Google Scholar
  8. D’Altroy, Terence N., 2002, The Incas. Blackwell, Malden, MA.Google Scholar
  9. Dillehay, Tom D. and Lautaro Núñez, 1988, Camelids, caravans, and complex societies in the south-central Andes. In Recent Studies in Pre-Columbian Archaeology, edited by Nicholas J. Saunders and Oliver de Montmollin, pp. 603–634. Oxford.Google Scholar
  10. Goldstein, Paul, 2005, Andean Diaspora. The Tiwanaku Colonies and the Origins of South American Empire. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
  11. Grupe, Gisela, T. Douglas Price, Peter Schröter, Frank Söllner, Clark Johnson, and Brian L. Beard, 1997, Mobility of Bell Beaker people revealed by strontium isotope ratios of tooth and bone: a study of southern Bavarian skeletal remains. Applied Geochemistry 12: 517–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hoshower, Lisa M., Paul S. Goldstein, Ann D. Webster, and Jane E. Buikstra, 1995, Artificial cranial deformation at the Omo M10 site: a Tiwanaku complex from the Moquegua Valley, Peru. Latin American Antiquity 6: 145–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Isbell, William H., 1985, Origen del estado en el valle de Ayacucho. Revista Andina 3: 57–106.Google Scholar
  14. Janusek, John W., 2004, Identity and Power in the Ancient Andes. Tiwanaku Cities Through Time. Routledge, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Julien, Catherine, 2000, Reading Inca History. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.Google Scholar
  16. Kellner, Corina, 2002, Coping with Environmental and Social Challenges in Prehistoric Peru: Bioarchaeological Analyses of Nasca Populations. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara.Google Scholar
  17. Knudson, Kelly J., 2004, Tiwanaku Residential Mobility in the South Central Andes: Identifying Archaeological Human Migration through Strontium Isotope Analysis. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  18. Knudson, Kelly J., T. Douglas Price, Jane E. Buikstra, and Deborah E. Blom, 2004, The use of strontium isotope analysis to investigate Tiwanaku migration and mortuary ritual in Bolivia and Peru. Archaeometry 4: 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kolata, Alan L., 1992, Economy, ideology, and imperialism in the south-central Andes. In Ideology and Pre-Columbian Civilizations, pp. 65–86. School of American Research, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  20. Kolata, Alan L., 1993a, The Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization. Blackwell, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  21. Kolata, Alan L., 1993b, Understanding Tiwanaku: conquest, colonization, and clientage in the south central Andes. In Latin American Horizons, edited by Don S. Rice, pp. 193–224. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  22. Larsen, Clark Spencer, 1997, Bioarchaeology: Interpreting Behavior from the Human Skeleton. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.Google Scholar
  23. Mujica, Elias J., Mario A. Rivera, and Thomas F. Lynch, 1983, Proyecto de estudio sobre la complementariedad economica Tiwanaku en los valles occidentales del centro-sur andino. Chungara 11: 85–109.Google Scholar
  24. Murra, John V., 1972, El “control vertical” de un máximo de pisos ecológicos en la economía de las sociedades andinas. In Visita de la Provincia de Leon de Huanuco en 1562, edited by John V. Murra, pp. 429–476. Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizan, Huanuco.Google Scholar
  25. Owen, Bruce, 2005, Distant colonies and explosive collapse: the two stages of the Tiwanaku diaspora in the Osmore drainage. Latin American Antiquity 16: 45–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ponce Sangines, Carlos, 1972, Tiwanaku: Espacio, Tiempo y Cultura. Ensayo de Sintesis Arqueológica. Publicación No. 30. Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia, La Paz.Google Scholar
  27. Price, T. Douglas, R. Alexander Bentley, Jens Luning, Detlef Gronenborn, and Joachim Wahl, 2001, Prehistoric human migration in the Linearbankeramik of central Europe. Antiquity 75: 593–603.Google Scholar
  28. Price, T. Douglas, R. Alexander Bentley, Jens Luning, Detlef Gronenborn, Joachim Wahl, James Burton, and R. Alexander Bentley, 2002, The characterization of biologically available strontium isotope ratios for the study of prehistoric migration. Archaeometry 44: 117–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Price, T. Douglas, R. Alexander Bentley, Jens Luning, Detlef Gronenborn, Joachim Wahl, Gisela Grupe, and Peter Schroter, 1998, Migration in the Bell Beaker period of central Europe. Antiquity 72: 405–411.Google Scholar
  30. Price, T. Douglas, R. Alexander Bentley, Jens Luning, Detlef Gronenborn, Joachim Wahl, Linda Manzanilla, and William D. Middleton, 2000, Immigration and the ancient city of Teotihuacan in Mexico: a study using stronium isotope ratios in human bone and teeth. Journal of Archaeological Science 27: 903–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rattray, Evelyn C., 1990, The identification of ethnic affiliation at the Merchant’s Barrio, Teotihuacan. In Ethnoarquelogia Coloquio Bosch-Gimpera, edited by Yoko Sugiura Y. and Mari Carmen Serra P., pp. 113–138. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City.Google Scholar
  32. Rodman, Amy Oakland, 1992, Textiles and ethnicity: Tiwanaku in San Pedro de Atacama, north Chile. Latin American Antiquity 3: 316–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rowe, John H., 1946, Inca culture at the time of the Spanish conquest. In Handbook of South American Indians, edited by Julian H. Steward. Bulletin 143, Volume 2, pp. 183–330. Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  34. Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro, 1999 [1572], History of the Incas. Dover, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Schreiber, Katharina J., 1992, Wari Imperialism in Middle Horizon Peru. Anthropological Papers, No. 87. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  36. Spence, Michael W., 1992, Tlailotlacan, a Zapotec enclave in Teotihuacan. In Art, Ideology, and the City of Teotihuacan, edited by Janet Berlo, pp. 59–88. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  37. Sutter, Richard C., 2000, Prehistoric genetic and culture change: a bioarchaeological search for pre-Inka altiplano colonies in the coastal valleys of Moquegua, Peru, and Azapa, Chile. Latin American Antiquity 11: 43–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Torres, Constantino M. and William Conklin, 1995, Exploring the San Pedro de Atacama/ Tiwanaku relationship. In Andean Art: Visual Expression and Its Relation to Andean Beliefs and Values, edited by Penny Dransart, pp. 78–108. Avebury, Hampshire.Google Scholar
  39. Torres-Rouff, Christina, 2002, Cranial vault modification and ethnicity in Middle Horizon San Pedro de Atacama, Chile. Current Anthropology 43:163–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tung, Tiffiny A., 2003, A Bioarchaeological Perspective on Wari Imperialism in the Andes of Peru: A View from Heartland and Hinterland Skeletal Populations. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  41. Tung, Tiffiny A. and Anita G. Cook, 2006, Intermediate elite agency in the Wari empire: the bioarchaeological and mortuary evidence. In Intermediate Elites in Pre-Columbian States and Empires, edited by Christina Elson and R. Alan Covey, pp. 68–93. University of Arizona Press, Tuscon.Google Scholar
  42. Tung, Tiffiny A. and Kelly J. Knudson, n.d., Local ancestors or foreign enemies?:The geographical origin of trophy heads from the Wari site of Conchopata. Manuscript in review.Google Scholar
  43. Varela, Hector Hugo and José Alberto Cocilovo, 2000, Structure of the prehistoric population of San Pedro de Atacama. Current Anthropology 41: 125–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Verano, John W. and Michael DeNiro, J., 1993, Locals or foreigners? Morphological, biometric, and isotopic approaches to the question of group affinity in human skeletal remains recovered from unusual archaeological contexts. In Investigations of Ancient Human Tissue: Chemical Analyses in Anthropology, edited by Mary Sandford, K., pp. 361–386. Gordon and Breach, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tiffiny A. Tung
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations