Advertisement

The nature of pre-Hispanic urbanism is one of the most controversial issues in the archaeology of the Central Andes. The contrasting positions range from the nature of the concept itself to the chronology of the process, the role of presumably urban complexes, and the characteristics of the social and economic context. The discrepancies and contradictions were heightened in the last decade when the astonishing monumental architecture of the Late Pre-ceramic Period (2700–1800/1500 BC) on Peru’s north-central coast (“norte chico”) was reinterpreted by Ruth Shady (2006; Shady and Leyva 2003; Shady et al. 2001), on the basis of her fieldwork at Caral in the Supe Valley, as evidence of a process of nucleation (Figure 32.1). Shady explains the architectural complexity of Caral and the diffusion along the norte chico of ceremonial architecture with pyramids, raised atriums, ventilated hearths and sunken circular courts as an effect of the presumed rise of the inchoate state, its capital city, and its secondary and tertiary administrative centers. Shady (Shady and Leyva 2003) adapts Childe’s (1974 inter alia) theory of the urban revolution to approach the issue from a perspective that is eclectic, pragmatic, comparative, and axiomatic at the same time. Additional data have been generated by the multi-valley project of Jonathan Haas and collaborators. Haas has some reservations as regards the centralized characteristics of the norte chico’s political institutions while recognizing the remarkable complexity of the norte chico phenomenon (Haas and Creamer 2004; Haas et al. 2004).

Keywords

Administrative Center Monumental Architecture Middle Horizon Ceremonial Center Late Intermediate Period 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, Robert McC., 1966, The Evolution of Urban Society. Early Mesopotamia and Prehistoric Mexico. Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, Robert McC., 1981, Heartland of Cities. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  3. Akkermans, Peter M. M. G. and Glenn M. Schwartz, 2003, Archaeology of Syria. From Complex Hunter Gatherer to Early Urban Societies (ca. 16, 000–300 B.C.). Cambridge World Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  4. Algaze, Guillermo, 1993, The Uruk World System. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  5. Anders, Martha, 1991, Structure and function at the planned site of Azangaro: cautionary notes for the model of Huari as a centralized secular state. In Huari Administrative Structure. Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government, edited by William H. Isbell and Gordon F. McEwan, pp. 165–197. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  6. Bauer, Brian S., 1998, The Sacred Landscape of the Inca. The Cusco Ceque System. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  7. Bawden, Garth, 1990, Domestic space and social structure in pre-Columbian northern Peru. In Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space: An Interdisciplinary Cross-Cultural Study, edited by Susan Kent, pp. 153–171. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  8. Bonnier, Elisabeth, 1997, Pre-ceramic architecture in the Andes: the Mito Tradition. In Archaeológica Peruana 2: Arquitectura y Civilización en los Andes Prehispánicos, edited by Elisabeth Bonnier and Henning Bischof, pp. 120–144. Sociedad Arqueológica Peruano-Alemana, Reiss Museum, Mannheim.Google Scholar
  9. Brennan, Curtis T., 1980, Cerro Arena. Early cultural complexity and nucleation in north coastal Peru. Journal of Field Archaeology 7: 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burger, Richard L., 1992, Chavin and the Origins of Andean Civilization. Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  11. Burger, Richard L., and Lucy Salazar-Burger, 1991, The second season of investigations at the Initial Period center of Cardal, Peru. Journal of Field Archaeology 18 (3): 275–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Butterlin, Pascal, 2003, Les Temps Proto-Urbaines de Mésopotamie. CNRS éditions, Paris.Google Scholar
  13. Canziani, José, 1987, Asentamientos Humanos y Formaciones Sociales en la Costa Norte del Antiguo Perú. Lima.Google Scholar
  14. Canziani, José, 1992, Arquitectura y urbanismo del periodo Paracas en el valle de Chincha. Gaceta Arqueológica Andina 22:87–117.Google Scholar
  15. Carneiro, Robert, 1970, A theory of the origin of the state. Science 169: 733–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chapdelaine, Claude, 2002, Out in the streets of Moche: urbanism and sociopolitical organization at a Moche IV urban center. In Andean Archaeology I: Variations in Sociopolitical Organization, edited by William H. Isbell and Helaine Silverman, pp. 53–88. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Childe, V. Gordon, 1974 [1950], The urban revolution. In The Rise and Fall of Cilvilizations, edited by Jeremy Sabloff and C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, pp. 6–14. Cummings, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  18. Collier, Donald, 1955, Development of civilization on the coast of Peru. In Irrigation Civilizations: A Comparative Study, by Julian H. Steward, Robert McC. Adams, Donald Collier, Angel Palerm, Karl A. Wittfogel, and Ralph L. Beals, pp. 19–27. Social Science Monographs 1, Pan American Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  19. Daggett, Richard, 1987, Toward the development of the state on the north central coast of Peru. In The Origins and Development of the Andean State, edited by Jonathan Haas, Shelia Pozorski, and Thomas Pozorski, pp. 70–82. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  20. Dillehay, Tom D., 2001, Town and country in Late Moche times: a view from two northern valleys. In Moche Art and Archaeology in Ancient Peru, edited by Joanne Pillsbury, pp. 259–284. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  21. Dillehay, Tom D., 2004, Social landscape and ritual pause: uncertainty and integration in Formative Peru. Journal of Social Archaeology 4 (2): 239–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dillehay, Tom D., Duccio Bonavia, and Peter Kaulicke, 2004, The first settlers. In Andean Archaeology, edited by Helaine Silverman, pp. 16–34. Blackwell, Malden.Google Scholar
  23. D’Altroy, Terence N., 2001, A view of the plains from the mountains: commentary on the Uruk by an Andeanist. In Uruk, Mesopotamia and Its Neighbors, Cross-Cultural Interactions in Era of State Formation, edited by Mitchell Rothman, pp. 445–476. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  24. Donnan, Christopher, and Guillermo A. Cock (eds.), 1986, The Pacatnamu Papers, Vol. 1. University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  25. Donnan, Christopher and Guillermo A. Cock (eds.), 1997, The Pacatnamu Papers, Vol. 2. University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  26. Eeckhout, Peter, 1999, Pachacamac durant l’Intermédiaire Récent. Étude d’un site monumental préhispanique de la Côte Centrale du Pérou. Oxford, BAR International Series, 747.Google Scholar
  27. Evans, Susan Toby and Joanne Pillsbury, 2004, Palaces of the Ancient New World. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  28. Geertz, Clifford, 1980, The Theatre State in Nineteenth-Century Bali. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  29. Ghezzi, Ivan, 2004, Religious warfare at Chankillo. In Andean Archaeology III: North and South, edited by William H. Isbell and Helaine Silverman, pp. 67–84. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Haas, Jonathan, 1987, The exercise of power in early Andean state development. In The Origins and Development of the Andean State, edited by Jonathan Haas, Shelia Pozorski, and Thomas Pozorski, pp. 31–35. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  31. Haas, Jonathan, Winifred Creamer, and Alvaro Ruiz, 2004, Dating the Late Archaic occupation of the norte chico region in Peru. Nature 432:1020–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haas, Jonathan and Winifred Creamer, 2004, Cultural transformations in the Central Andean Late Archaic. In Andean Archaeology, edited by Helaine Silverman, pp. 35–50. Blackwell, Malden.Google Scholar
  33. Hagen, Adriana von and Craig Morris, 1988, The Cities of the Ancient Andes. Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  34. Heyerdahl, Thor, Daniel H. Sandweiss and Alfredo Narváez, 1995, Pyramids of Túcume: The Quest for Peru’s Forgotten City. Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  35. Hole, Frank, 1994, Environmental instabilities and urban origins. In Chiefdoms and Early States in the Near East, edited by Gil Stein and Mitchell S. Rothman, pp. 121–151. Monographs in World Archaeology, No. 18. Prehistory Press, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  36. Hyslop, John, 1990, Inka Settlement Planning. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  37. Isbell, William H., 1988, City and state in Middle Horizon Wari. In Peruvian Prehistory, edited by Richard W. Keatinge, pp. 164–189. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  38. Isbell, William H., 2001, Huari y Tiahuanaco, arquitectura, identidad y religión. In Los Dioses del Antiguo Perú, edited by Krzysztof Makowski, Vol. 2, pp. 1–38. Banco de Crédito, Lima.Google Scholar
  39. Isbell, William H., 2004, Palaces and politics in the Andean Middle Horizon. In Palaces of the Ancient New World, edited by Susan Toby Evans and Joanne Pillsbury, pp. 191–246. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  40. Isbell, William H. and Anita G. Cook, 2002, A new perspective on Conchopata and the Andean Middle Horizon. In Andean Archaeology II: Art, Landscape and Society, edited by Helaine Silverman and William H. Isbell, pp. 249–305. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Isbell, William H. and Katharina J. Schreiber, 1978, Was Huari a state? American Antiquity 43 (3): 372–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Janusek, John W., 2004, Identity and Power in the Ancient Andes: Tiwanaku and Lukurmata. Routledge, New York and London.Google Scholar
  43. Jimenez Borja, Arturo, 1985, Pachacamac. Boletín de Lima 7 (38): 40–54.Google Scholar
  44. Johnson, Gregory A., 1973, Local Exchange and Early State Development in Southwestern Iran. Anthropological Papers, No. 51. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  45. Kendall, Ann, 1985, Aspects of Inca Architecture. Description, Function and Chronology, 2 vols. British Archaeological Reports, International Series, 242.Google Scholar
  46. Kolata, Alan L., 1990, The urban concept of Chan Chan. In The Northern Dynasties: Kinship and Statecraft in Chimor, edited by Michael E. Moseley, Alana Cordy Collins and Maria Rostworowski, pp. 107–144. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  47. Kolata, Alan L., 1997, Of kings and capitals: principles of authority and the nature of cities in the native Andean state. In The Archaeology of City-States: Cross-Cultural Approaches, edited by Deborah L. Nichols and Thomas H. Charlton, pp. 245–254. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  48. Kolata, Alan L., 2003, The social production of Tiwanaku: political economy and authority in a native Andean state. In Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland: Archaeology and Palaeoecology of an Andean Civilization, edited by Alan L. Kolata, Vol. 2, pp. 449–472. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  49. Lumbreras, Luis G., 1974, The Peoples and Cultures of Ancient Peru. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  50. Lumbreras, Luis G., 1975, Las Fundaciones de Huamanga. Lima.Google Scholar
  51. Lumbreras, Luis G., 1986, Childe and the urban revolution: the Central Andean experience. In The Gordon Childe Colloquium. Mexico.Google Scholar
  52. Makowski, Krzysztof, 1996, La ciudad y el origen de la civilización en los Andes. Cuadernos de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Humanas de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 15. Lima. Reprinted in Estudios Latinoamericanos 17: 63–89. Sociedad Polaca de Estudios Latinoamericanos, Warsaw.Google Scholar
  53. Makowski, Krzysztof, 2002, Il fenómeno dell’urbanizzazione. La nascitá e lo sviluppo delle cittá in America Meridionale. In Il Mondo dell’Archaeologia, Vol. 1 s.v. Instituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome.Google Scholar
  54. Mann, Michael, 1986, The Source of Social Power, Vol. 1. A History of Power from the Beginning to A.D. 1760. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  55. Manzanilla, Linda (ed.), 1997, Emergence and Change in Early Urban Societies. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  56. Massey, Sarah A., 1986, Sociopolitical Change in the Upper Ica Valley, BC 400 to 400 AD: Regional States on the South Coast of Peru. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  57. McEwan, Gordon, 2005, Pikillacta. The Wari Empire in Cuzco. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.Google Scholar
  58. Mogrovejo, Juan, and Rafael Segura, 2001, El Horizonte Medio en el conjunto arquitectónico Julio C. Tello de Cajamarquilla. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP 4: 565–582. Huari y Tiahuanaco. Modelos vs. Evidencias. Primera parte, edited by Peter Kaulicke and William H. Isbell. Departamento de Humanidades, Especialidad de Arqueología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  59. Moore, Jerry D., 1996, Architecture and Power in the Ancient Andes. The Archaeology of Public Buildings. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  60. Morris, Craig, 1972, State settlements in Tawantinsuyu: a strategy of compulsory urbanism. In Contemporary Archaeology, edited by Mark P. Leone, pp. 393–401. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.Google Scholar
  61. Morris, Craig and Donald E. Thompson, 1985, Huánuco Pampa: An Inca City and its Hinterland. Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  62. Moseley, Michael E. and Kent C. Day (eds.), 1982, Chan Chan. Andean Desert City. School of American Research, Santa Fe and University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  63. Murra, John V., 1972, El “control vertical” de un máximo de pisos ecológicos en la economía de las sociedades andinas. In La Provincia de Léon de Huanuco en 1562, Iñigo Ortiz de Zúñiga, Visitador, edited by John V. Murra, Vol. 2, pp. 427–476. Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizán, Huánuco, Perú.Google Scholar
  64. Onuki, Yoshio (ed.), 1995, Kuntur Wasi y Cerro Blanco. Dos Sitios del Formativo en el Norte del Perú. Hokusen-Sha.Google Scholar
  65. Patterson, Thomas C. and Christine Gailey, 1987, Power relations and state formation. In Power Relations and State Formation, edited by Thomas C. Patterson and Christine Gailey, pp. 1–26. American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  66. Peters, Ann H., 1987–88, Chongos: sitio Paracas en el valle de Pisco. Gaceta Arqueológica Andina 16: 30–34.Google Scholar
  67. Pozorski, Shelia and Thomas Pozorski, 1987, Early Settlement and Subsistence in the Casma Valley. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.Google Scholar
  68. Pozorski, Shelia and Thomas Pozorski, 1991, Storage, access control, and bureaucratic proliferation: understanding the Initial Period (1800–900 B.C.) economy at Pampa de las Llamas-Moxeke, Casma Valley, Peru. Economic Anthropology 13: 341–371.Google Scholar
  69. Ramazzotti, Marco, 2003, Modeli insedimentiali alle soglie del protodinastico in Mesopotamia Meridionale, Centrale e Nord-Orientale. Apunti per una critica alla formazione “secondaria” degli stati nel III milenio a.C. Contributi e Materiali di Aarcheologia Orientale IX: 15–71. Universitá degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”, Dipartimento di scienze storiche, archeologiche e antropologiche dell’Antichità.Google Scholar
  70. Rowe, John H., 1963, Urban settlements in ancient Peru. Ñawpa Pacha 1: 1–27.Google Scholar
  71. Rowe, John H., 1967, What kind of a settlement was Inca Cuzco? Ñawpa Pacha 5: 59–76.Google Scholar
  72. Rothman, Mitchell S., 2002, The Evolution of a Small Prehistoric Center in Northern Iraq. University Museum Publications, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  73. Rothman, Mitchell S., 2004, Studying the development of complex society: Mesopotamia in the late fifth and fourth millenia B.C. Journal of Archaeological Research 12 (1): 75–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Schaedel, Richard P., 1966, Incipient urbanization and secularization in Tiahuanacoid Peru. American Antiquity 31: 338–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schaedel, Richard P., 1978, The city and the origin of the state in America. In Urbanization in the Americas from its Beginnings to the Present, edited by Richard P. Schaedel, pp. 31–49. The Hague.Google Scholar
  76. Schaedel, Richard P., 1980, The growth of cities and the origins of complex societies in the New World. In Origins of Cities and Complex Societies in the Americas. A Brief Reader, edited by Richard P. Schaedel, pp. 1–9. Latin American Institute, Berlin.Google Scholar
  77. Schaedel, Richard P., 1980, The commonality in processual trends in the urbanization process: urbanization and the redistributive function in the Central Andes. In Origins of Cities and Complex Societies in the Americas. A Brief Reader, edited by Richard P. Schaedel, pp. 10–24. Latin American Institute, Berlin.Google Scholar
  78. Schreiber, Katharina, 1992, Wari Imperialism in Middle Horizon Peru. Anthropological Papers, No. 87. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  79. Shady, Ruth, 2006, America’s first city? The case of Late Archaic Caral. In Andean Archaeology III: North and South, edited by William H. Isbell and Helaine Silverman, pp. 28–66. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  80. Shady, Ruth and Carlos Leyva (eds.), 2003, La Ciudad Sagrada de Caral, Supe. Los Orígenes de la Civilización Andina y la Formación del Estado Prístino en el Antiguo Perú. Proyecto Especial Arqueológico Caral-Supe, Instituto Nacional de Cultura, Lima.Google Scholar
  81. Shady, Ruth, Jonathan Haas, and Winifred Creamer, 2001, Dating Caral, a pre-ceramic site in the Supe Valley on the central coast of Peru. Science 292: 723–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shimada, Izumi, 1991, Pachacamac Archaeology: Retrospect and Prospect. In Pachacamac. A Reprint of the 1903 Edition by Max Uhle, edited by Izumi Shimada, pp. 15–66. University Museum Monograph, 62. University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  83. Shimada, Izumi, 1994, Pampa Grande and the Mochica Culture. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  84. Silverman, Helaine, 1993, Cahuachi in the Ancient Nasca World. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.Google Scholar
  85. Silverman, Helaine, 1996, The Formative Period on the south coast of Peru: a critical review. Journal of World Prehistory (10) 2: 95–146.Google Scholar
  86. Silverman, Helaine, 2002, Ancient Nasca Settlement and Society. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.Google Scholar
  87. Southall, Aidan, 1998, The City in Time and Space. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  88. Stanish, Charles, 2001, The origin of the state in South America. Annual Review in Anthropology 30: 41–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Steward, Julian H., Robert McC. Adams, Donald Collier, Angel Palerm, Karl A. Wittfogel, and Ralph L. Beals, 1955, Irrigation Civilizations: A Comparative Study. Social Science Monographs 1, Pan American Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  90. Swenson, Edward R., 2003, Cities of violence. Journal of Social Archaeology 3 (2): 256–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tellenbach, Michael, 1986, Las Excavaciones en el Asentamiento Formativo de Montegrande, Valle de Jequetepeque en el Norte del Perú. Materialien zur Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden Archäologie, Band 39. Verlag C. H. Beck, Munich.Google Scholar
  92. Tello, Julio C., 1956, Arqueología del Valle de Casma. Publicación Antropológica del Archivo “Julio C. Tello” de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.Google Scholar
  93. Tello, Julio C., Paracas. Primera Parte. Gráfica Scheuch, Lima.Google Scholar
  94. Topic, John R., 2003, From steward to bureaucrats: architecture and information flow at Chan Chan, Peru. Latin American Antiquity 14 (3): 243–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Topic, John R. and Theresa Lange Topic, 1997, Hacia una comprensión de la guerra andina. In Arqueología, Antropología e Historia en los Andes. Homenaje a María Rostworowski, edited by Rafael Varón Gabai and Javier Flores Espinoza, pp. 567–590. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos and Banco Central de Reserva, Lima.Google Scholar
  96. Topic, John R. and Theresa Lange Topic, 2001, Hacia la comprensión del fenómeno huari: una perspectiva norteña. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP 4: 181–218. Huari y Tiahuanaco. Modelos vs. Evidencias. Primera Parte, edited by Peter Kaulicke and William H. Isbell. Departamento de Humanidades, Especialidad de Arqueología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  97. Trigger, Bruce G., 1985, The evolution of pre-industrial cities: a multilinear perspective. In Mélanges offerts à Jean Vercoutter, edited by Francis Geus and Florence Thill, pp. 243–253. Editions Recherches sur les Civilizations, Paris.Google Scholar
  98. Trigger, Bruce G., 2003, Understanding Early Civilizations. A Comparative Study. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  99. Tschauner, Hartmut, 2003, Honco Pampa: arquitectura de élite del Horizonte Medio en el Callejón de Aguilas. In Arqueología de la Sierra de Ancash. Propuestas y Perspectivas, edited by Bebel Ibarra Asencios, pp. 193–220. Instituto Cultural Runa, Lima.Google Scholar
  100. Yoffee, Norman, 1993, Too many chiefs? In Archaeological Theory. Who Sets the Agenda?, edited by Norman Yoffee and Andrew Sherratt, pp. 60–78. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  101. Yoffee, Norman, 1995, Political economy in early Mesopotamian states. Annual Review of Anthropology 24: 281–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Willey, Gordon R., 1953, Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the Viru Valley, Northern Peru. Bulletin 135, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  103. Wilson, David. J., 1988, Prehistoric Settlement in the Lower Santa Valley, Peru. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  104. Wilson, David. J., 1997, Early state formation on the north coast of Peru: a critique of the city-state model. In The Archaeology of City-States: Cross-Cultural Approaches, edited by Deborah L. Nichols and Thomas H. Charlton, pp. 229–244. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  105. Wheatley, Paul, 1971, The Pivot of Four Quarters. Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  106. Wilkinson, Toby A. H., 2001, Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, London and New York.Google Scholar
  107. Wright, Henry T., 1969, The Administration of Rural Production in an Early Mesopotamian Town. Anthropological Papers, No. 38. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  108. Wright, Henry T. and Gregory A. Johnson, 1975, Population exchange and early state formation in southwestern Iran. American Anthropologist 77 (2): 267–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zuidema, R. Tom, 1964, The Ceque System of Cuzco. E. J. Brill, Leiden.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krzysztof Makowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Decano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias HumanasPontificia Universidad Católica del PerúPeru

Personalised recommendations