The Hypoxic Transcriptome of the Retina: Identification of Factors with Potential Neuroprotective Activity
Most blinding diseases of the retina share a common feature – the loss of photoreceptor cells by apoptosis. Although degenerative diseases like age–related macular degeneration (AMD) and Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) are among the main causes for severe visual impairment and blindness, no effective therapeutical treatments are available to prevent loss of vision in human patients. Protection of retinal cells against cell death is a promising strategy to develop therapies aiming at the rescue of retinal function. For the successful design of neuroprotective strategies, it is essential to understand the molecular events leading to the degeneration of retinal cells. To study signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms during the degenerative processes, several mouse models of inherited retinal degeneration are used (Fauser et al., 2002).
KeywordsPhotoreceptor Cell Intermittent Hypoxia Retinal Degeneration Hypoxic Precondition Normoxic Control
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Benjamini, Y. and Hochberg, Y. 1995. Controlling the false discovery rate – a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J Roy Stat Soc 57: 289–300.Google Scholar
- Draghici, S., Khatri, P., Bhavsar, P., Shah, A., Krawetz, S.A., and Tainsky, M.A. 2003a. Onto-Tools, the toolkit of the modern biologist: Onto-Express, Onto-Compare, Onto-Design and Onto-Translate. Nucleic Acids Res 31(13): 3775–3781.Google Scholar
- Draghici, S., Khatri, P., Martins, R.P., Ostermeier, G.C., and Krawetz, S.A. 2003b. Global functional profiling of gene expression. Genomics 81(2): 98–104.Google Scholar
- Draghici, S., Khatri, P., Shah, A., and Tainsky, M.A. 2003c. Assessing the functional bias of commercial microarrays using the onto-compare database. Biotechniques Suppl: 55–61.Google Scholar
- Grimm, C., Wenzel, A., Stanescu, D., Samardzija, M., Hotop, S., Groszer, M., Naash, M., Gassmann, M., and Reme, C. 2004. Constitutive overexpression of human erythropoietin protects the mouse retina against induced but not inherited retinal degeneration. J Neurosci 24(25): 5651–5658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Miyashita, K., Itoh, H., Arai, H., Suganami, T., Sawada, N., Fukunaga, Y., Sone, M., Yamahara, K., Yurugi-Kobayashi, T., Park, K., Oyamada, N., Sawada, N., Taura, D., Tsujimoto, H., Chao, T.H., Tamura, N., Mukoyama, M., and Nakao, K. 2006. The neuroprotective and vasculo-neuro-regenerative roles of adrenomedullin in ischemic brain and its therapeutic potential. Endocrinology 147(4): 1642–1653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zaman, K., Ryu, H., Hall, D., O’Donovan, K., Lin, K.I., Miller, M.P., Marquis, J.C., Baraban, J.M., Semenza, G.L., and Ratan, R.R. 1999. Protection from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in cortical neuronal cultures by iron chelators is associated with enhanced DNA binding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and ATF-1/CREB and increased expression of glycolytic enzymes, p21(waf1/cip1), and erythropoietin. J Neurosci 19(22): 9821–9830.PubMedGoogle Scholar