Functional Expression of Cone Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channel in Cone Photoreceptor-Derived 661W Cells

  • J. Browning Fitzgerald
  • Anna P. Malykhina
  • Muayyad R. Al-Ubaidi
  • Xi-Qin Ding
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 613)

Cone phototransduction mediated by cone cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel activation is essential for central and color vision. Rod or cone CNG channels are composed of two structurally related subunit types: the A and the B subunits. The stoichiometry of the rod CNG channel complex has been established by biochemical, biophysical and molecular biological means, showing a heterotetrameric complex composed of three A and one B subunits (Shammat and Gordon, 1999; Zheng et al., 2002). Naturally occurring mutations in the cone channel have been shown to affect cone function and to associate with varieties of cone diseases (Kaupp and Seifert, 2002). Unlike the rod channel, the biochemical properties and functional regulation of the cone CNG channel are much less understood; only recently has the molecular identity of the channel B subunit been revealed (Gerstner et al., 2000).


Mouse Retina Cone Photoreceptor 661W Cell Interphotoreceptor Retinoid Binding Protein Cone Channel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Castagnet P, Mavlyutov T, Cai Y, Zhong F, Ferreira P (2003) RPGRIP1s with distinct neuronal localization and biochemical properties associate selectively with RanBP2 in amacrine neurons. Hum Mol Genet 12:1847–1863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Crawford MJ, Krishnamoorthy RR, Rudick VL, Collier RJ, Kapin M, Aggarwal BB, Al-Ubaidi MR, Agarwal N (2001) Bcl-2 overexpression protects photooxidative stress-induced apoptosis of photoreceptor cells via NF-kappaB preservation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 281:1304–1312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ding XQ, Nour M, Ritter LM, Goldberg AF, Fliesler SJ, Naash MI (2004) The R172W mutation in peripherin/rds causes a cone-rod dystrophy in transgenic mice. Hum Mol Genet 13:2075–2087.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gerstner A, Zong X, Hofmann F, Biel M (2000) Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a new modulatory cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunit from mouse retina. J Neurosci 20:1324–1332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Iversen N, Birkenes B, Torsdalen K, Djurovic S (2005) Electroporation by nucleofector is the best nonviral transfection technique in human endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Genet Vaccines Ther 3:2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kanan Y, Moiseyev G, Agarwal N, Ma JX, Al-Ubaidi MR (2007) Light induces programmed cell death by activating multiple independent proteases in a cone photoreceptor cell line. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:40–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kaupp UB, Seifert R (2002) Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels. Physiol Rev 82:769–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Leclere PG, Panjwani A, Docherty R, Berry M, Pizzey J, Tonge DA (2005) Effective gene delivery to adult neurons by a modified form of electroporation. J Neurosci Methods 142:137–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Malykhina AP, Qin C, Greenwood-van Meerveld B, Foreman RD, Lupu F, Akbarali HI (2006) Hyperexcitability of convergent colon and bladder dorsal root ganglion neurons after colonic inflammation: mechanism for pelvic organ cross-talk. Neurogastroenterol Motil 18:936–948.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Muller F, Vantler M, Weitz D, Eismann E, Zoche M, Koch KW, Kaupp UB (2001) Ligand sensitivity of the 2 subunit from the bovine cone cGMP-gated channel is modulated by protein kinase C but not by calmodulin. J Physiol 532:399–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Peng C, Rich ED, Varnum MD (2004) Subunit configuration of heteromeric cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. Neuron 42:401–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Peng C, Rich ED, Thor CA, Varnum MD (2003) Functionally important calmodulin-binding sites in both NH2- and COOH-terminal regions of the cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated channel CNGB3 subunit. J Biol Chem 278:24617–24623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sanvicens N, Gomez-Vicente V, Masip I, Messeguer A, Cotter TG (2004) Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in retinal photoreceptor cells is mediated by calpains and caspases and blocked by the oxygen radical scavenger CR-6. J Biol Chem 279:39268–39278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Shammat IM, Gordon SE (1999) Stoichiometry and arrangement of subunits in rod cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. Neuron 23:809–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Srinivasan B, Roque CH, Hempstead BL, Al-Ubaidi MR, Roque RS (2004) Microglia-derived pronerve growth factor promotes photoreceptor cell death via p75 neurotrophin receptor. J Biol Chem 279:41839–41845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tan E, Ding XQ, Saadi A, Agarwal N, Naash MI, Al-Ubaidi MR (2004) Expression of cone-photoreceptor-specific antigens in a cell line derived from retinal tumors in transgenic mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:764-768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Tuohy G, Millington-Ward S, Kenna PF, Humphries P, Farrar GJ (2002) Sensitivity of photoreceptor-derived cell line (661 W) to baculoviral p35, Z-VAD.FMK, and Fas-associated death domain. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:3583–3589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Zheng J, Trudeau MC, Zagotta WN (2002) Rod cyclic nucleotide-gated channels have a stoichiometry of three CNGA1 subunits and one CNGB1 subunit. Neuron 36:891–896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zhong H, Molday LL, Molday RS, Yau KW (2002) The heteromeric cyclic nucleotide-gated channel adopts a 3A:1B stoichiometry. Nature 420:193–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Browning Fitzgerald
    • 1
  • Anna P. Malykhina
    • 2
  • Muayyad R. Al-Ubaidi
    • 1
  • Xi-Qin Ding
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Cell BiologyUniversity of Oklahoma Health Sciences CenterOklahoma CityUSA
  2. 2.Physiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences CenterOklahoma CityUSA

Personalised recommendations