The endothelium constitutes the interface between the flowing blood and the deformable solid wall. The endothelium is a layer of connected and anchoragedependent cells. The endothelium has several functions. It acts in molecule exchange between the blood and the vessel wall or the perfused tissues (Sect. 9.2). It controls flowing cell adhesion and extravasation (Sect. 9.3), especially for immune defense. It regulates coagulation and thrombolysis (Sect. 9.4). It regulates vasomotor tone and the growth and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells via the release of several compounds (Sect. 9.5). It is required in angiogenesis (Sect. 10.4.2).
KeywordsNitric Oxide Endothelial Cell Wall Shear Stress Focal Adhesion Kinase Heparan Sulfate
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