The heart is made of two synchronized pumps with a common wall, the septum between the left and right atria at its upper part, and the left and right ventricles at its lower part. These twin pumps are composed of two chambers, upstream atrium and downstream ventricle, to adapt to the pressure difference between the upstream venous compartment and downstream arterial bed. The two pumps function in parallel. The left heart propels blood through the systemic circulation (arterial oxygenated blood), and the right heart through the pulmonary circulation (arterial deoxygenated blood; the artery corresponds to a vessel leaving the cardiac pump, without relation with the blood gas content).


Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Cardiac Hypertrophy Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Epicardial Adipose Tissue Myosin Head 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

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