The Nature of Cancer and Its Psychosocial Challenges

  • Karen Kayser
  • Jennifer L. Scott


Breast Cancer Social Support Psychological Distress Breast Cancer Survivor Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alferi, S. M., Carver, C. S., Antoni, M. H., Weiss, S., & Duran, R. E. (2001). An exploratory study of social support, distress, and life disruption among low-income Hispanic women under treatment for early stage breast cancer. Health Psychology, 20, 41–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alter, C., Pelcovitz, D., Axelrod, A., Goldenberg, B., Harris, H., Meyers, B., et al. (1996). Identification of PTSD in cancer survivors. Psychosomatics, 37, 137–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen, B. L., Anderson, B., & DeProsse, C. (1989). Controlled prospective longitudinal study of women with cancer: I. sexual functioning outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(6), 683–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrykowski, M. A., Cordova, M. J., Studts, J. L., & Miller, T. W. (1998). Posttraumatic stress disorder after treatment for breast cancer: Prevalence of diagnosis and use of the PTSD checklist–civilian version (PCL–C) as a screening instrument. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(3), 586–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrykowski, M. A., Curran, S. L., Studts, J. L., Cunningham, L., Carpenter, J. S., McGrath, P. C., Sloan, D. A., & Kenady, D. E. (1996). Psychosocial adjustment and quality of life in women with breast cancer and benign breast problems: a controlled comparison. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 49(8): 827–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  7. Amir, M., & Ramati, A. (2002). Post-traumatic symptoms, emotional distress and quality of life in long-term survivors of breast cancer: A preliminary research. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 16, 191–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Badger, T. A., Braden, C. J., Mishel, M. H., & Longman, A. (2004). Depression burden, psychological adjustment, and quality of life in women with breast cancer: Patterns over time. Research in Nursing & Health, 27, 19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Badr, H., Acitelli, L. K., Duck, S. W., & Carl, W. J. (2001). Weaving social support and relationships together. In B. R. Sarason & S. W. Duck (Eds.), Personal relationships: Implications for clinical and community psychology (pp. 1–14). Chichester: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Baider, L., & Denour, A. K. (1999). Psychological distress of cancer couples: A leveling effect. New Trends in Experimental & Clinical Psychiatry, 15(4), 197–203.Google Scholar
  11. Baucom, D. H., Porter, L. S., Kirby, J. S., Gremore, T. M. & Keefe, F. J. (2005–2006). Psychosocial issues confronting young women with breast cancer. Breast-disease, 23: 103–13.Google Scholar
  12. Baum, A., & Posluszny, D. M. (2001). Traumatic stress as a target for intervention with cancer patients. In A. Baum & B. L. Andersen (Eds.), Psychosocial interventions for cancer. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  13. Binik, Y.M., Chowanec, G. D., & Devins, G. M. (1990). Marital role strain, illness intrusiveness, and their impact on marital and individual adjustment in end-stage renal disease. Psychology and Health, 4, 245–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blanchard, C. G., Albrecht, T. L., Ruckdeschel, J. C., & Grant, C. H. (1995). The role of social support in adaptation to cancer and to survival. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. Special Issue: Psychosocial resource variables in cancer studies: Conceptual and measurement issues, 13(1–2), 75–95.Google Scholar
  15. Blanchard, E. G., Jones-Alexander, J., Buckley, T. C., & Forneirs, C. A. (1996). Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist (PCL). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 669–673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bleiker, E. M. A., Pouwer, F., van der Ploeg, H. M., Leer, J. H., & Ader, H. J. (2000). Psychological distress two years after diagnosis of breast cancer: Frequency and prediction. Patient Education and Counseling, 40, 209–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bloom, J. R. (1996). Social support of the cancer patient and the role of the family. In L. Baider, C. L. Cooper, & A. Kaplan DeNour (Eds.), Cancer and the family (pp. 53–69). New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Brady, S. S., & Helgeson, V. S. (1999). Social support and adjustment to recurrence of breast cancer. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 17(2), 37–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Calhoun, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. G. (1998). Beyond recovery from trauma: Implications for clinical practice and research. Journal of Social Issues, 54, 357–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cella, D. F., Tulsky, D. S., Gray, G. et al. (1993) The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale, Journal of Clinical Oncology, 11, 570–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Charles, K., Sellick, S. M., Montesanto, B., & Mohide, E. A. (1996). Priorities of cancer survivors regarding psychosocial needs. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 14, 57–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chesler, M. A. & Barbarin, O. A. (1987). Childhood cancer and the family: Meeting the challenge of stress and support. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  23. Cohen, L., Hack, T., de Moor, C., Katz, J., & Goss, P. E. (2000). The effects of type of surgery and time on psychological adjustment in women after breast cancer treatment. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 7, 427–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cohen, S. (1988). Psychosocial models of the role of social support in the etiology of physical disease. Health Psychology, 7, 269–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cordova, M. J., Andrykowski, M. A., Kenady, D. E., McGrath, P. C., Sloan, D. A., & Redd, W. H. (1995). Frequency and correlates of posttraumatic-stress-disorder-like symptoms after treatment for breast cancer. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 981–986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cordova, M. J., Cunningham, L. L. C., Carlson, C. R., & Andrykowski, M. A. (2001). Posttraumatic growth following breast cancer: A controlled comparison study. Health Psychology, 20, 176–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cutrona, C. E. (1996). Social support in couples. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  28. Dakof, G. A., & Taylor, S. E. (1990). Victims’ perceptions of social support: What is helpful from whom? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 80–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dausch, B. M., Compas, B. E., Beckjord, E., Luecken, L., Anderson-Hanley, C., Sherman, M., et al. (2004). Rates and correlates of DSM-IV diagnoses in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 11, 159–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction With Life Scale, Journal of Personality Assessment, 9, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Drigotas, S. M., Rusbult, C. E., Wieselequist, J., & Whitton, S. W. (1999). Close partner as sculptor of the ideal self: Behavioral affirmation and the Michelangelo phenomenon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(2), 293–323.Google Scholar
  32. Dunkel-Schetter, C. (1984). Social support and cancer: Findings based on patient and interview and their implications. Journal of Social Issues, 40(4), 77–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ebbesen, L. S., Guyatt, G. H., McCartney, N., & Oldridge, N. B. (1990). Measuring quality of life in cardiac spouses. Journal of Epidemiology, 43, 481–487.Google Scholar
  34. Ell, K., Nishimoto, R., Morvay, T., Mantell, J., & Hamovitch, M. (1989). A longitudinal analysis of psychological adaptation among survivors of cancer. Cancer, 63, 406–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fields, A. L., Jones, J. G., Thomas, G. M., & Runowicz, C. D. (2001). Gynaecologic cancer. In R. E. Lenhard, R. T. Osteen, & T. Gansler (Eds.), Clinical oncology (pp. 455–496). Atlanta: American Cancer Society.Google Scholar
  36. Fife, (1995). The measurement of meaning in illness. Social Science Medicine, 40, 1021–1028.Google Scholar
  37. Figueiredo, M. I., Fries, E., & Ingram, K. M. (2004). The role of disclosure patterns and unsupportive social interactions in the well-being of breast cancer patients. Psycho-Oncology, 13, 96–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fleming, I., Cooper, J. S., Henson, D. E., Hutter, R. V. P., Kennedy, B. J., Murphy, G. P., et al. (Eds.). (1997). AJCC cancer staging manual (5th ed.). Philadelphia: J.B. Lipponcott.Google Scholar
  39. Fobair, P., Stewart, S. L., Chang, S., D’Onofrio, C., Banks, P. J., & Bloom, J. R. (2006). Body image and sexual problems in young women with breast cancer. Psycho-oncology, 15(7),579–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Garfinkel, L. (1995). Cancer statistics and trends. In R. E. Lenhard, R. T. Osteen, & T. Gansler (Eds.), Clinical oncology (pp. 1–9). Atlanta: American Cancer Society.Google Scholar
  41. Germino, B. B., Fife, B. L., & Funk, S.G. (1995). Cancer and the partner relationship: What is its meaning? Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 11, 43–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Giedzinska, A. S., Meyerowitz, B. E., Ganz, P. A., & Rowland, J. H. (2004). Health-related quality of life in a multiethnic sample of breast cancer survivors. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 28, 39–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Glanz, K., & Lerman, C. (1992). Psychosocial impact of breast cancer: A critical review. Annals of Behavioural Medicine, 14, 204–212.Google Scholar
  44. Green, B. L. (1994). Psychosocial research in traumatic stress: An update. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7, 341–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Greimel, E., Peintinger, F., Cegnar, I., Pongratz, E., & Thiel, I. (2003). Proxy-ratings versus self-ratings in assessing the quality of life of women with gynecological cancer. Psychology Science, 45(Suppl2), 90–105.Google Scholar
  46. Hannum, J. W., Giese-Davis, J., Harding, K., & Hatfield, A. K. (1991). Effects of individual and marital variables on coping with cancer. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 9, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Harwood, K. V., & O’Connor, A. P. (1994). Sexuality and breast cancer: Overview of issues. Innovations in Oncology Nursing, 10(23), 30–33, 51.Google Scholar
  48. Helgeson V., & Cohen S. (1996). Social support and adjustment to cancer: reconciling descriptive, correlational, and intervention research. Health Psychology, 15(2), 132–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Henderson, B. N., Davison, K. P., Pennebaker, J. W., Gatchel, R. J., & Baum, A. (2002). Disease disclosure patterns among breast cancer patients. Psychology & Health, 17, 51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Henderson, I. C. (1995). Breast cancer. In R. E. Lenhard, R. T. Osteen, & T. Gansler (Eds.), Clinical Oncology (pp. 198–219). Atlanta: American Cancer Society.Google Scholar
  51. Hodgkinson, K., Butow, P., Fuchs, A., Hunt, G. E., Stenlake, A., Hobbs K, M., et al. (2007). Long-term survival from gynecologic cancer: Psychosocial outcomes, supportive care needs and positive outcomes. Gynecologic Oncology, 104, 381–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Holland, J. C. (1998). Biology of cancer for the Psycho-oncologist. In J. C. Holland (Ed.), Textbook of Psycho-Oncology (pp. 16–23). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Hoskins, C. N., Baker, S., Budin, W., Ekstrom, D., Maislin, G., Sherman, D., et al. (1996). Adjustment among husbands of women with breast cancer. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 14(1) 41–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Irvine, D., Brown, B., Crooks, D., Roberts, J., & Browne, G. (1991). Psychosocial adjustment in women with breast cancer. Cancer, 67, 1097–1117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Isaacs, C., Stearns, V., & Hayes, D. F. (2001). New prognostic factors for breast cancer recurrence. Seminars in Oncology, 28(1), 53–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jamison, K. R., Wellisch, D. K., & Pasnau, R. O. (1978). Psychosocial aspects of mastectomy: I. The woman’s perspective. America Journal of Psychiatry, 135(4), 432–436.Google Scholar
  57. Kayser, K. (2005). Enhancing dyadic coping during a time of crisis: A theory-based intervention with breast cancer patients and their partners. In T. A. Revenson, K. Kayser, & G. Bodenmann (Eds.). Couples coping with stress: Emerging perspectives on dyadic coping (pp. 175–194). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kayser, K., & Sormanti, M. (2002). A follow-up study of women with cancer: their psychosocial well-being and close relationships. Social Work in Healthcare 35(1–2): 391–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kennedy-Moore, E., & Watson, J. C. (2001). How and when does emotional expression help? Review of General Psychology, 5(3), 187–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. King, M. T., Kenny, P., Shiell, A., Hall, J., & Boyages, J. (2000). Quality of life three months and one year after first treatment for early stage breast cancer: Influence of treatment and patient characteristics. Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care & Rehabilitation, 9, 789–800.Google Scholar
  61. Lakey, B., & Lutz, C. J. (1996). Social support and preventive and therapeutic interventions. In G. R. Pierce, B. R. Sarason, & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Handbook of social support and the family (pp. 435–465). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  62. Lambert, M. J., Morton, J. J., Hatfield, D., Harmon, G., Hamilton, S., Reid, R. C., et al. (2004). Administration and scoring manual for the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45.2). Orem, UT: American Professional Credentialing Service.Google Scholar
  63. Lenhard, R. E., & Osteen, R. T. (2001). General approach to cancer patients. In R. E. Lenhard, R. T. Osteen, & T. Gansler (Eds.), Clinical oncology (pp. 149–158). Atlanta: American Cancer Society.Google Scholar
  64. Lepore, S. J., & Helgeson, V. S. (1998). Social constraints, intrusive thoughts, and mental health after prostate cancer. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 17(1), 89–106.Google Scholar
  65. Lepore, S. J., Ragan, J. D., & Jones, S. (2000). Talking facilitates cognitive-emotional processes of adaptation to an acute stressor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(3), 499–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lethborg, C. E., Kissane, D., & Burns, W. I. (2003). ‘It’s not the easy part’: The experience of significant others of women with early stage breast cancer at treatment completion. Social Work in Health Care, 37, 63–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lewis, J. A., Manne, S. L., DuHamel, K. N., Johnson Vickberg, S. M., Bovbjerg, D. H., Currie, V., et al. (2001). Social support, intrusive thoughts, and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 24(3), 231–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lichtman, R. R., Taylor, S. E., & Wood, J. V. (1988). Social support and marital adjustment after breast cancer. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 5(3), 47–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lutgendorf, S., Andersen, B. L., Larsen, K., Buller, R. E., & Sorosky, J. I. (1999). Cognitive processing, social support coping, and distress in gynecological cancer patients. Cancer Research, Therapy, and Control, 8, 9–19.Google Scholar
  70. Lutgendorf S. K., Anderson B., Rothrock, N., Buller, R. E., Sood, A. K., Sorosky, J. I. (2000) Quality of life and mood in women receiving extensive chemotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Cancer. 89(6) 1402–1411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lutgendorf, S. K., Anderson, B., Ullrich, P., Johnsen, E. L., Buller, R. E., Sood, A. K., Sorosky, J. I. & Ritchie, J. (2002). Quality of life and mood in women with gynecologic cancer: A one year prospective study. Cancer 94:131–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lutgendorf, S. K., & Antoni, M. H. (1999). Emotional and cognitive processing in a trauma disclosure paradigm. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 23, 423–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Manne, S. L. (1994). Couples coping with cancer: Research issues and recent findings. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 1(4), 317–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Manne, S. L. (1998). Cancer in the marital context: A review of the literature. Cancer Investigation, 16, 188–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Manne, S. L. (1999). Intrusive thoughts and psychological distress among cancer patients: The role of spouse avoidance and criticism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 539–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Manne, S. L., Dougherty, J., Veach, S., & Kless, R. (1999). Hiding worries from one’s spouse: Protective buffering among cancer patients and their spouses. Cancer Research, Therapy, and Control, 8, 175–188.Google Scholar
  77. Manne, S., Ostroff, J., Winkel, G., Goldstein, L., Fox, K., & Grana, G. (2004). Posttraumatic growth after breast cancer: Patient, partner, and couple perspectives. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66(3), 442–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Manne, S. L., Taylor, K. L., Dougherty, J., & Kemeny, N. (1997). Supportive and negative responses in the partner relationship: Their association with psychological adjustment among individuals with cancer. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20(2), 101–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Martin, R., Davis, G. M., Baron, R. S., Suls, J., & Blanchard, E. B. (1994). Specificity in social support: Perceptions of helpful and unhelpful provider behaviors among irritable bowel syndrome, headache, and cancer patients. Health Psychology, 13(5), 432–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Maunsell, E., Brisson, J., & Deschenes, J. (1992). Psychological distress after initial treatment of breast cancer: Assessment of potential risk factors. Cancer 70(1): 120–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Maunsell, E., Brisson, J., & Deschenes, J. (1995). Social support and survival among women with breast cancer. Cancer 76(4): 631–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Merluzzi, T. V., Naim, R. C., Hegde, K. Sanchez, M. A. M., Dunn, L. (2001). Self-efficacy for coping with cancer: Revision of the Cancer Behavior Inventory, Psycho-Oncology, 10, 206–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mesters, I., van der Borne, H., McCormick, L., Pruyn, J., de Boer, M., & Imbos, T. (1997). Openness to discuss cancer in the nuclear family: Scale, development, and validation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 59, 269–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Morse, S. R., & Fife, B. (1998). Coping with a partner’s cancer: Adjustment at four stages of the illness trajectory. Oncology Nursing Forum, 25, 751–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Moyer, A. (1997). Psychosocial outcomes of breast-conservation surgery versus mastectomy: A meta-analytic review. Health Psychology, 16, 284–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nadeau, J. W. (1998). Families making sense of death. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  87. Neuling, S. J., & Winefield, H. R. (1988). Social support and recovery after surgery for breast cancer: Frequency and correlates of supportive behaviours by family, friends, and surgeon. Social Science Medicine, 27, 385–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Northouse L. & Peters-Golden, H. (1993). Cancer and the family: Strategies to assist spouses. Seminars in Oncology Nursing. 9, 74–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Northouse, L. L., & Swain, M. A. (1987). Adjustment of patients and husbands to the initial impact of breast cancer. Nursing Research, 36, 221–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Northouse, L. L., Templin, T., Mood, D., & Oberst, M. (1998). Couples’ adjustment to breast cancer and benign breast disease: A longitudinal analysis. Psycho-Oncology, 7, 37–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Omne-Ponten, M., Holmberg, L., & Sjoden, P. O. (1994). Psychosocial adjustment among women with breast cancer stages I and II: Six-year follow-up of consecutive patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 12, 1778–1782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Penman, D. T., Bloom, J. R., Fotopoulos, S., Cook, M. R., Holland, J. C., Gates, C., et al. (1986). The impact of mastectomy on self-concept and social function: A combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study with comparison groups. Women and Health, 12, 101–130.Google Scholar
  93. Peters-Golden, H. (1982). Breast cancer: Varied perceptions of social support in the illness experience. Social Science and Medicine, 16(4), 483–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pfeifer, J. D., & Wick, M. R. (2001). Pathologic evaluation of neoplastic diseases. In R. E. Lenhard, R. T. Osteen, & T. Gansler (Eds.), Clinical oncology (pp. 123–148). Atlanta: American Cancer Society.Google Scholar
  95. Pistrang, N., & Barker, C. (1995). The partner relationship in psychological response to breast cancer. Social Science and Medicine, 40, 789–797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. PoCOG. (2007). Psycho-Oncology Co-operative Research Group: Research with people affected by cancer from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities (CALD) Syndey: Scholar
  97. Polinsky, M. L. (1994). Functional status of long-term breast cancer survivors: Demonstrating chronicity. Health and Social Work, 19(3), 165–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Primomo, J., Yates, B. C., & Woods, N. F. (1990). Social support for women during chronic illness: The relationship among sources and types to adjustment. Research in Nursing and Health, 13, 153–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self- report depression scale for research in the general population, Applied Psychosocial Measurement, 1, 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Roberts, C., Cox, C., Shannon, V., & Wells, N. (1994). A closer look at social support as a moderator of stress in breast cancer. Health Social Work, 19, 157–164.Google Scholar
  101. Roos, E. J., de Graeff, A., van Eijkeren, M. A., Boon, T. A., Heintz, A. (2004). Quality of life after pelvic exenteration. Gynecologic-oncology 93(3): 610–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rose, J. H. (1990). Social support and cancer: Adult patients’ desire for support from family, friends and health professionals. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18(3), 439–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rowland, J. H., Desond, K. A., Meyerowitz, B. E., Belin, T. R., Wyatt, G. E., & Ganz, P. A. (2000). Role of breast reconstruction surgery in physical and emotional outcomes among breast cancer survivors. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 92(17), 1422–1429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sabo, D. (1990). Men, death anxiety, and denial: Critical feminist interpretations of adjustment to mastectomy. In C. Clark, F. Fritz, & P. Rieder (Eds.), Clinical sociological perspectives on illness and loss (pp. 71–84). Philadelphia: Charles Press.Google Scholar
  105. Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A re-evaluation of the Life Orientation Test, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063–1078.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Scott, J. L., Halford, W. K., & Ward, B. G. (2004). United we stand? The effects of a couple-coping intervention on adjustment to early stage breast or gynecological cancer. Journal of Consulting and Clinincal Psychology, 72(6), 1122–1135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Scott, J. L., Halford, W. K., McGuckin, M. A., Ward, B. G., Wetzig, N. R., & Pyke, C. (2000). Can psycho-oncology interventions be made more viable for clinical settings? Results from a trail of a self-directed coping skills program for women with cancer and their closest support persons. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (Abstract), 7(Suppl. 1), 36.Google Scholar
  108. Scott, J. L., et al., (2003). How can we disseminate psycho-oncology interventions to oncology and community settings? Results from a trial of a self-directed coping training program for women with cancer and their closest support persons. (Abstract) Australian Journal of Psychology, 55(Suppl), 211.Google Scholar
  109. Sellick, S. M., & Crooks, D. L. (1999). Depression and cancer: An appraisal of the literature for prevalence, detection, and practice guideline development for psychological interventions. Psycho-oncology, 8, 315–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Shapiro, A. F., Gottman, J. M., & Carrere, S. (2000). The baby and the marriage: Identifying factors that buffer against decline in marital satisfaction after the first baby arrives. Journal of Family Psychology, 14(1), 59–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Shelby, R. A., Golden-Kreutz, D., M., & Andersen, B. L. (2005). Mismatch of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and DSM-IV symptom clusters in a Cancer Sample: Exploratory factor analysis of the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(4), 347–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Smith, E. M., Redman, R., Burns, T. L., & Sagert, K. M. (1985). Perceptions of social support among patients with recently diagnosed breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer: An exploratory study. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 3(3), 65–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sobin, L. H., & Fleming, I. D. (1997). TNM classification of malignant tumors. Fifth edition, Cancer, 80(9), 1803–1804.Google Scholar
  114. Sormanti, M., & Kayser, K. (2000). Partner support and changes in relationships during life-threatening illness: Women’s perspectives. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 18(3), 45–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Stanton, A. L., & Snider, P. R. (1993). Coping with a breast cancer diagnosis: A prospective study. Health Psychology, 12(1), 16–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stanton, A. L., Estes, M. A., Estes, N. C., Cameron, C. L., Danoff-Burg, S., & Irving, L. M. (1998). Treatment decision making and adjustment to breast cancer: A longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(2), 313–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Taylor, S. E., Falke, R. L., Shoptaw, S. J., & Lichtman, R. R. (1986). Social support, support groups, and the cancer patient. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 608–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1995). Trauma and transformation: Growing in the aftermath of suffering. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  119. Vess, J. D., Moreland, J. R., & Schwebel, A. I. (1985a). An empirical assessment of the effects of cancer on family role functioning. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 3(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Vess, J. D., Moreland, J. R., & Schwebel, A. I. (1985b). A follow-up study of role functioning and the psychological environment of families of cancer patients. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 3(2), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Vinokur, A. D., Threatt, B. A., Vinokur-Kaplan, D., & Satariano, W. A. (1990). The process of recovery from breast cancer for younger and older patients. Cancer, 65, 1242–1254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Walker, B. L. (1997). Adjustment of husbands and wives to breast cancer. Cancer Practice, 5(2), 92–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Weiss, T. (2002). Posttraumatic growth in women with breast cancer and their husbands: An intersubjective validation study. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 20, 65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Weiss, T. (2004a). Correlates of posttraumatic growth in married breast cancer survivors. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 733–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Weiss, T. (2004b). Correlates of posttraumatic growth in husbands of breast cancer survivors. Psycho-Oncology, 13, 260–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wenzel, L. B., Donnelly, J. P., Fowler, J. M., Habbal, R., Taylor, T. H., & Aziz, N. et al. (2002). Resilience, reflection, and residual stress in ovarian cancer survivorship: A gynecologic oncology group study. Psycho-Oncology, Special Issue: Survivorship, 11(2), 142–153.Google Scholar
  127. Wingate, P., & Wingate, R. (Eds.). (1988). The Penguin Medical Encyclopedia (3rd ed.). London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  128. Wingo, P. A., Parkin, D. M., & Eyre, H. J. (2001). Measuring the occurrence of cancer: Impact and statistics. In R. E. Lenhard, R. T. Osteen, & T. Gansler (Eds.), Clinical oncology (pp. 1–20). Atlanta: American Cancer Society.Google Scholar
  129. Wortman, C. B. (1984). Social support and the cancer patient. Cancer, 53(10), 2339–2360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Zemore, R., & Shepel, L. F. (1989). Effects of breast cancer and mastectomy on emotional support and adjustment. Social Science and Medicine, 28(1), 19–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen Kayser
    • 1
  • Jennifer L. Scott
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate School of Social WorkBoston CollegeChestnut HillUSA
  2. 2.School of PsychologyUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia

Personalised recommendations