Gestures and Multimodal Signaling in Bonobos
Studies on bonobos have come a long way in the last several decades. Our understanding of this remarkable ape’s ecology, sexual behavior, dominance style, and conservation issues is constantly evolving. We know a great deal about the bonobo’s vocal repertoire, as described by de Waal (1988), Hohmann and Fruth (1994), and Bermejo and Omedes (1999). Facial expressions have not been studied nearly as fully, perhaps because doing so requires close observation. For this and other forms of visual communication, captive studies remain invaluable. They allow for the observation of detailed social behavior at close range, as well as the observation of complex social interactions in their entirety.
KeywordsFacial Expression Communicative Signal Vocal Signal Gestural Communication Human Gesture
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