Corruption as a Causal Factor in Human Trafficking

  • Sheldon X. Zhang
  • Samuel L. Pineda
Part of the Studies in Organized Crime book series (SOOC, volume 7)

Human trafficking has gained wide attention in both developed and developing countries. It is now considered the third-largest criminal industry in the world as of 2006 after the arms and drugs trades, with profits reaching billions each year (Siobhan, 2006). According to FBI estimates, human trafficking generates $9.5 billion annually in the U.S. alone (Siobhan, 2006). It is a phenomenon that shows no prejudice toward race, gender, or geography, but a general preference towards the young and female. Trafficking victims are a diverse group, ranging from those who are aspiring to improve their life to those desperate to escape civil unrest. Some leave their home countries on their own, while others, often children and women, are “given” or sold to related or unrelated adults who promise education and employment opportunities. Invariably, they fall victim to forced or bonded labor.


Capita Income Organize Crime Sexual Exploitation Human Trafficking International Labor Organization 
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© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheldon X. Zhang
  • Samuel L. Pineda

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