Mathematics grows through the development and study of new concepts. The history of numbers illustrates this growth.
Ancient cultures began mathematics by counting, keeping tallies. In the ancient Near East an increasingly urban economy the need to keep records, at first by the use of tokens, small clay objects, to correspond to quantities of goods. Sometime around 3100 B.C. ancient accountants began abstracting quantity from the objects being counted, and written numbers were born (see Schmandt-Besserat (1993)).
KeywordsEquivalence Class Natural Number Equivalence Relation Rational Number Mathematical Object
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