Skin Allografts in Scalp Reconstruction

  • Peter C. Neligan

Current techniques for the closure of scalp defects are reviewed. These include allografts, skin grafts, local flaps, regional flaps, and free flaps. Advantages and disadvantages of these procedures are pointed out in the context of the feasibility of allograft reconstruction in the form of composite tissue transplantation.


Skin Graft Free Flap Local Flap Perforator Flap Skin Allograft 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    F. Groenevelt, A. J. van Trier, Y. L. Khouw, The use of allografts in the management of exposed calvarial electrical burn wounds of the skull, Ann NY Acad Sci 888, 109–112 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. W. Fosko, C. B. Cuono, D. J. Leffell, Allograft skin as an adjunct in the repair of radiation-compromised wound, Arch Dermatol 129(3), 293–295 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. R. Jones, P. A. Humphrey, D. C. Brennan, Transplantation of vascularized allogeneic skeletal muscle for scalp reconstruction in a renal transplant patient, Transplantation 65(12), 1605–1610 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Cheng, Microsurgical replantation of the avulsed scalp: report of 20 cases, Plast Reconstr Surg 97(6), 1099–1106; discussion 1107–1108 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Thomas, Total face and scalp replantation, Plast Reconstr Surg 102(6), 2085–2087 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Q. Jiang, et al., Composite tissue allograft transplantation of cephalocervical skin flap and two ears, Plast Reconstr Surg 115(3), 31e–35e; discussion 36e–37e (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. J. Accioli de Vasconcellos, et al., The fascial planes of the temple and face: an en-bloc anatomical study and a plea for consistency, Br J Plast Surg 56(7), 623–629 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. S. Lutz, et al., Reconstruction of scalp defects with free flaps in 30 cases, Br J Plast Surg 51(3), 186–190 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. Lee, K. Bickel, S. Levin, Microsurgical reconstruction of extensive scalp defects, J Reconstr Microsurg 15(4), 255–262; discussion 263–264 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. G. Pennington, H. S. Stern, K. K. Lee, Free-flap reconstruction of large defects of the scalp and calvarium, Plast Reconstr Surg 83(4), 655–661 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. P. TerKonda, J. M. Sykes, Concepts in scalp and forehead reconstruction, Otolaryngol Clin North Am 30(4), 519–539 (1997).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. A. Navsaria, et al., Reepithelialization of a full-thickness burn from stem cells of hair follicles micrografted into a tissue-engineered dermal template (Integra), Plast Reconstr Surg 113(3), 978–981 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. Komorowska-Timek, et al., Artificial dermis as an alternative for coverage of complex scalp defects following excision of malignant tumors, Plast Reconstr Surg 115(4), 1010–1017 (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. S. Wilensky, et al., The use of a bovine collagen construct for reconstruction of full-thickness scalp defects in the elderly patient with cutaneous malignancy, Ann Plast Surg 54(3), 297–301 (2005).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. L. Gonyon, Jr., M. R. Zenn, Simple approach to the radiated scalp wound using INTEGRA skin substitute, Ann Plast Surg 50(3), 315–320 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Orticochea, New three-flap reconstruction technique, Br J Plast Surg 24(2), 184–188 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. L. Frodel, Jr., K. Ahlstrom, Reconstruction of complex scalp defects: the “Banana Peel” revisited, Arch Facial Plast Surg 6(1), 54–60 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. M. Field, Hairline reconstruction utilizing modified winged V-plastic hair-bearing flaps and focal anastomotic line excisions, Dermatol Surg 22(11), 937–940 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. A. Lesavoy, et al., Management of large scalp defects with local pedicle flaps, Plast Reconstr Surg 91(5), 783–790 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. R. Lynch, et al., The lower trapezius musculocutaneous flap revisited: versatile coverage for complicated wounds to the posterior cervical and occipital regions based on the deep branch of the transverse cervical artery, Plast Reconstr Surg 109(2), 444–450 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. R. Ozbek, N. Kutlu, Vertical trapezius myocutaneous flap for covering wide scalp defects, Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 22(6), 326–329 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. I. Dinner, B. Guyuron, H. P. Labandter, The lower trapezius myocutaneous flap for head and neck reconstruction, Head Neck Surg 6(1), 613–617 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. Angrigiani, et al., The dorsal scapular island flap: an alternative for head, neck, and chest reconstruction, Plast Reconstr Surg 111(1), 67–78 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Losken, et al., Omental free flap reconstruction in complex head and neck deformities, Head Neck 24(4), 326–331 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    P. Neligan, P. Gullane, Head and neck reconstruction. In Perforator Flaps: Anatomy, Technique and Clinical Applications, ed. by Blondeel, P., et al., pp 758–774. Quality Medical Publishing, St. Louis (2006).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter C. Neligan
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plastic Surgery, Toronto General HospitalUniversity of Toronto School of MedicineTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations