Tracheal Transplantation

  • Gabriel M. Marta
  • Walter Klepetko

The human trachea has a length of approximately 10–13 cm (average 11.8 cm) of which only a maximum of 6.5 cm or 50% of its total length can safely be resected and reanastomosed. However, the thoracic surgeon is often confronted with localized tracheal tumors or long segment stenosis exceeding this resection limits. To reconstruct these long tracheal segment defects, an adequate substitute material is needed.


Great Omentum Tracheal Stenosis Tracheal Epithelium Inferior Thyroid Artery Tracheal Cartilage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    H. C. Grillo, Tracheal replacement: A critical review. Ann Thorac Surg 73, 1995–2004 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. G. Rob, G. H. Bateman, Reconstruction of the trachea and cervical oesophagus. Br J Surg 37, 202–205 (1949).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Belsey, Resection and reconstruction of the intrathoracic trachea. Br J Surg 38, 200–205 (1950).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. J. Ferguson, J. J. Wild, O. H. Wangensteen, Experimental resection of the trachea. Surgery 28, 597–619 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. R. Cantrell, J. R. Folse, The repair of circumferential defects of the trachea by direct anastomosis: experimental evaluation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 42, 589–598 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Mulliken, H. C. Grillo, The limits of tracheal resection with primary anastomosis. Further anatomical studies in man. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 55, 418–421 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. C. Grillo, E. F. Dignan, T. Mirua, Extensive resection and reconstruction of mediastinal trachea without prosthesis or graft: an anatomical study in man. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 48, 471 (1964).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. W. Gebauer, Further experiences with dermal grafts for healed tuberculous stenosis of the bronchi and trachea. J Thorac Surg 20, 628–651 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. G. Rose, K. Sesterhenn, F. Wustrow, Tracheal allotransplantation in man. Lancet 1, 433 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Herberhold, B. Franz, W. Breipohl, Chemisch-konservierte menschliche Trachea als Prothesenmaterial zur Deckung trachealer Defekte. Laryng Rhinol 59, 453–457 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    V. Tsang, A. Murday, C. Gillbe, P. Goldstraw, Slide tracheoplasty for congenital funnel-shaped tracheal stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg 48, 632–635(1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. C. Grillo, Slide tracheoplasty for long-segmentcongenital tracheal stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg 58, 613–619 (1994). (Article in German).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Messineo, R. M. Filler, B. Bahoric, Successful tracheal autotransplantation with a vascularised omental flap. J Pediatr Surg 26, 1296–1300 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. N. Levashov, P. K. Yablonsky, S. M. Cherny, S. V. Orlov, B. B. Shafirovsky, I. M. Kuznetzov, One stage allotransplantation of thoracic segment of the trachea in a patient with idiophatic fibrosing mediastinitis and marked tracheal stenosis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 7, 383–386 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Takachi, T. Shirakusa, T. Shiraishi, K. Okabayashi, K. Inutsuka, K. Kawahara, R. Nakanishi, Experimental carinal autotransplantation and allotransplantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 110(3), 762–767 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. F. Khalil-Marzouk, J. D. Cooper, Allograft replacement of the trachea. Experimental synchronous revascularization of composite thyrotracheal transplant. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 105, 242–246 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Macchiarini, B. Lenot, V. de Montpreville, E. Dulment, G. M. Mazmanian, M. Fattal, Heterotopic pig model for direct revascularization and venous drainage of tracheal allografts. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 108, 1066–1075 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. L. Backer, C. Mavroudis, M. E. Dunham, L. D. Holinger, Repair of congenital tracheal stenosis with a free tracheal autograft. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 115, 869–874 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    W. Klepetko, G. M. Marta, W. Wisser, E. Melis, A. Kocher, G. Seebacher, C. Aigner, S. Mazhar, Heterotopic tracheal transplantation with omentum wrapping in the abdominal position preserves functional and structural integrity of a human tracheal allograft. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 127, 862–867(2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Susan Standring et al., Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice – 39th Edition (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2005).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. W. Fawcett, R. P. Jensh, Concise Histology (Chapman & Hall; International Thomson Publishing, 1997).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. A. Cleven, E. M. Genden, T. M. Moran, Reepithelialized orthotopic tracheal allografts expand memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes but show no evidence of chronic rejection. Transplantation 79, 861–868 (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Bujia, E. Wilmes, C. Hammer, Class II antigenicity of human cartilage: Revelance to the use of homologous cartilage graft for reconstructive surgery. Ann Plast Surg 26, 541–543 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y. Liu, T. Nakamura, Y. Shimizu, H. Ueda, M. Yoshitani, T. Toba, S. Fukuda, Experimental study of blood typing in immunosuppressant-free tracheal transplantation in dogs. Thorac Cardiov Surg 51, 216–220 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. E. Kelly, M. I. Hertz, D. L. Mueller, T-cell and major histocompatibility complex requirements for obliterative airway disease in heterotopically transplanted murine tracheas. Transplantation 66(6), 764–771 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. S. Ikonen, T. R. Brazelton, G. J. Berry, R. S. Shorthouse, R. E. Morris, Epithelial re-growth is associated with inhibition of obliterative airway disease in orthotopic tracheal allografts in non-immunosuppressed rats. Transplantation 70, 857–863 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    E. M. Genden, S. Govindaraj, H. Chaboki, H. Cleven, E. Fedorova, J. S. Bromberg, L. Mayer, Reepithelization of orthotopic allografts prevents rejection after withdrawal of immunosuppression. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 114, 279–288 (2005).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    E. M. Genden, P. Boros, L. Jianhua, J. S. Bromberg, L. Mayer. Orthotopic tracheal transplantation in the murine model. Transplantation 73(9), 1420–1425 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    E. M. Genden, A. Iskander, J. S. Bromberg, L. Mayer, The kinetics and pattern of tracheal allograft re-epithelization. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 28(6), 673–681 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Y. Ito, H. Suzuki, Y. Hattori, B. A. H. Muhammad, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, T. Kazui, Complete replacement of tracheal epithelia by the host promotes spontaneous acceptance of orthotopic tracheal allografts in rats. Transplant Proc 36, 2406–2412 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. V. Small, K. Anderson, K. Rottner, Actin and the coordination of protrusion, attachment and retraction in cell crawling. Biosci Rep 16(5), 351–368 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. E. Barrow, C. Z. Wang, M. J. Evans, D. N. Herndon. Growth factors accelerate epithelial repair in sheep trachea. Lung 171(6), 335–344 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. Dodge-Khatami, H. W. M. Niessen, A. Baidoshvili, T. M. van Gulik, M. G. Klein, L. Eijsman, B. A. J. M. de Mol, Topical vascular endothelial growth factor in rabbit tracheal surgery: comparative effect on healing using reconstruction materials and intraluminal stents. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 23, 6–14 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. M. Albes, T. Klenzer, J. Kotzerke, K. U. Thiedemann, H. J. Schafers, H. G. Borst, Improvement of tracheal autograft revascularization by means of fibroblast growth factor. Ann Thorac Surg 57, 444–449 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    R. P. Pokharel, K. Maeda, T. Yamamoto, Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in exuberant tracheal granulation tissue in children. J Pathol 188, 82–86 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. J. Corral, A. Siddiqui, L. Wu, C. L. Farrell, D. Lyons, T. A. Mustoe, Vascular endothelial growth factor is more important than basic fibroblastic growth factor during ischemic wound healing. Arch Surg 134, 200–205 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. W. Sung, T. Won. Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on early revascularization and epithelial regeneration in rabbit tracheal orthotopic transplantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 19, 14–18 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Govindaraj, R. Gordon, E. M. Genden. Effect of fibrin matrix and vascular endothelial growth factor on reepithalialization of orthotopic murine tracheal transplants. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 113(10), 797–804 (2004).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Y. Liu, T. Nakamura, Y. Yamamoto, K. Matsumoto, T. Sekine, H. Ueda, Y. Shimizu. A new tracheal bioartificial organ: evaluation of a tracheal allograft with minimal antigenicity after treatment by detergent. ASAIO J 46, 536–539 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    H. Yokomise, K. Inui, H. Wada, T. Goh, K. Yagi, S. Hitomi, M. Takahashi, High-dose irradiation prevents rejection of canine tracheal allografts. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 107(6), 1391–1397 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    S. Kunachak, B. Kulapaditharom, Y. Vajaradul, M. Rochanawutanon. Cryopreserved, irradiated tracheal homograft transplantation for laryngotracheal reconstruction in human beings. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 122(6), 911–916 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    C. Deschamps, V. F. Trastek, J. L. Ferguson, W. J. Martin, T. V. Colby, P. C. Pairolero, Cryopreservation of canine trachea: functional and histological changes. Ann Thorac Surg 47, 208–212 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    T. Tojo, K. Niwaya, N. Sawabata, K. Kushibe, K. Nezu, S. Taniguchi, Tracheal replacement with cryopreserved tracheal allograft: experiment in dogs. Ann Thorac Surg 66, 209–213 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    T. Mukaida, N. Shimizu, M. Aoe, A. Andou, H. Date, K. Okabe, M. Yamashita, S. Ichiba, Experimental study of tracheal allotransplantation with cryopreserved grafts. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 116(2), 262–266 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    T. Aoki, Y. Yamato, M. Tsuchida, T. Souma, K. Yoshiya, T. Watanabe, J. Hayashi, Successful tracheal transplantation using cryopreserved allografts in a rat model. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 16, 169–173 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    K. Kushibe, K. Nezu, K. Nishizaki, M. Takahama, S. Taniguchi, Tracheal allotransplantation maintaining cartilage viability with long-term cryopreserved allografts. Ann Thorac Surg 71, 1666–1669 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    T. Muraka, J. Nakajima, N. Motomura, A. Murakami, S. Takamoto, Successful allotransplantation of cryopreserved tracheal grafts with preservation of the pars membranacea in non-human primates. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 123(1), 153–160 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    R. Nakanishi, T. Onitsuka, Y. Shigematsu, M. Hashimoto, H. Muranaka, K. Yasumoto, The immunomodulatory effect of cryopreservation in rat tracheal allotransplantation. J Heart Lung Transplantation 21(8), 890–898 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    H. Tanaka, K. Maeda, Y. Okita. Transplantation of the cryopreserved tracheal allograft in growing rabbits. J Pediatr Surg 38, 1707–1711 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    H. Yokomise, K. Inui, H. Wada, S. Hasegawa, N. Ohno, S. Hitomi, Reliable cryopreservation of trachea for one month in a new trehalose solution. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 110, 382–385 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    E. Stoelben, H. Harpering, J. Haberstroh, A. di Filippo, E. Wellens,. Heterotopic transplantation of cryopreserved tracheae in a rat model. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 23, 15–20 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    R. Nakanishi, K. Yasumoto, Minimal dose of cyclosporine A for tracheal allografts. Ann Thorac Surg 60, 635–639 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    P. R. Delaere, Z. Liu, R. Sciot, W. Welvaart, The role of immunosuppression in the long-term survival of tracheal allografts. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 122, 1201–1208 (1996).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    M. Hashimoto, R. Nakanishi, M. Umesue, H. Muranaka, M. Hachida, K. Yasumoto, Feasibility of cryppreserved tracheal xenotransplants with the use of short-course immunosuppression. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 121(2), 241–248 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    G. Benichou, Direct and indirect antigen recognition: the pathways to allograft immune rejection. Front Biosci 4, 476–480 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    E. M. Genden, S. E. Mackinnon, S. Yu, D. A. Hunter, M. W. Flye, Portal venous ultraviolet B-irradiated donor alloantigen prevents rejection in circumferential rat tracheal allografts. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 124, 481–488 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    F. G. Fernandez, B. McKane, S. H. Marshbank, A. Patterson, T. H. Mohanakumar. Inhibition of obliterative airway disease development following heterotopic murine tracheal transplantation by costimulatory molecule blockade using anti-CD40 ligand alone or in combination with donor bone marrow. J Heart Lung Transplant 24(7S), 232–238 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    R. Suemitsu, I. Yoshino, F. Shoji, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Tomita, Y. Maehara. The effects of pre-treatment with donor antigen and immunosuppressive agents on fully allogenic tracheal graft. J Surg Res 122(1), 8–13 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    T. Miura, H. C. Grillo, The contribution of the inferior thyroid artery to the blood supply of the human trachea. Surg Gynecol Obstet 123, 99–107 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    J. R. Salassa, W. B. Pearson, W. Spencer-Payne, Gross and microscopical blood supply of the trachea. Ann Thorac Surg 24, 100–107 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    S. Strome, E. Sloman-Moll, J. Wu, R. B. Samonte, M. Strome, Rat model for a vascularised laryngeal allograft. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 101, 950–953 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    T. Miura, H. C. Grillo, The contribution of the inferior thyroid artery to the blood supply of the human trachea. Surg Gynecol Obstet 99, (1966).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    J. Salmeron, P. J. Gannon, K. E. Blackwell, C. M. Shaari, M. L. Urken, Tracheal transplantation: superior and inferior thyroid artery perfusion territory. Laryngoscope 108, 849–853 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    C. M. Shaari, P. J. Gannon, J. Salmeron, I. Sanders, M. L. Urken, Tracheal transplantation: defining the vascular territory of the canine cranial thyroid artery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 120, 180–183 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    E. M. Genden, P. J. Gannon, S. H. Smith, N. Keck, M. Deftereos, M. L. Urken, Microvascular transfer of long tracheal autograft segments in the canine model. Laryngoscope 112, 439–444 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    A. Macedo, E. Fadel, G. M. Mazmanian, V. de Montpreville, M. German-Fattal, S. Mussot, A. Chapelier, P. G. Dartevelle, Heterotopic en bloc tracheobronchial transplantation with direct revascularization in pigs. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 127, 1593–1601 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    E. Morgan, O. Lima, M. Goldberg, A. Ferdman, S. K. Luk, J. D. Cooper, Successful revascularization of totally ischemic bronchial autografts with omental pedicle flaps in dogs. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 84, 204–210 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    V. M. Olech, S. H. Keshavjee, D. W. Chamberlain, A. S. Slutsky, G. A. Patterson, Role of basic fibroblast growth factor in revascularization of rabbit tracheal autografts. Ann Thorac Surg 52(2), 258–264 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    S. C. Baldermann, G. Weinblatt, Tracheal autograft revascularization. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 94, 434–441 (1987).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    R. Nakanishi, T. Shirakusa, T. Mitsudomi, Maximum length of tracheal autografts in dogs. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 106, 1081–1087 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    H. Yokomise, K. Inui, H. Wada, M. Ueda, S. Hitomi, H. Itoh, Split transplantation of the trachea: a new operative procedure for extended tracheal resection. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 112, 314–318 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    K. Murai, H. Oizumi, T. Masaoka, T. Fujishima, M. Abiko, S. Shiono, Y. Shimazaki, Removal of cartilage rings of the graft and omentopexy for extended tracheal autotransplantation. Ann Thorac Surg 67, 776–780 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    T. Masaoka, H. Oizumi, T. Fujishima, Y. Naruke, S. Shiono, Y. Shimazaki, Removal of cartilage rings prevents graft stenosis in extended tracheal allotransplantation with omentopexy and immunosuppression: an experimental study. J Heart Lung Transplant 21(4), 485–492 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    J. M. Borro, M. Chirivella, C. Vila, G. Galan, M. Prieto, F. Paris, Successful revascularization of large isolated tracheal segments. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 6(11), 621–623 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    R. Nakanishi, T. Shirakusa, T. Takachi, Omentopexy for tracheal autografts. Ann Thorac Surg 57, 841–845 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    W. Weder, D. Candinas, C. Scherer, H. Date, J. D. Cooper, Revascularization of tracheal transplants with omentum. Helv Chir Acta 58(4), 533–537 (1992). (Article in German).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    J. Li, P. Xu, H. Chen, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, Improvement of tracheal autograft survival with transplantation into the greater omentum. Ann Thorac Surg 60, 1592–1596 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    J. Li, P. Xu, H. Chen, Successful tracheal autotransplantation with two-staged approach using the greater omentum. Ann Thorac Surg 64, 199–202 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    P. R. Delaere, Z. Y. Liu, R. Hermans, R. Sciot, L. Feenstra, Experimental tracheal allograft revascularization and transplantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 110, 728–737 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    J. A. Hardillo, V. Vander Poorten, P. R. Delaere. Transplantation of tracheal autografts: is a two-stage procedure necessary? Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 54(1), 13–21(2000).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    J. S. Cibantos Filho, F. V. de Mello Filho, A. D. Campos, F. Ellinguer, Viability of a 12-ring complete tracheal segment transferred in the form of a compound flap: an experimental study in dogs. Laryngoscope 114(11), 1949–1952 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    M. Behrend, R. von Wasielewski, J. Klempnauer, Failure of airway healing in an ovine autotransplantation model that includes basic fibroblast growth factor. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 124, 231–240 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    C. Herberhold, Transplantation of larynx and trachea in man. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1(Suppl.), 247–255 (1992).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    J. P. Jacobs, M. J. Elliott, M. P. Haw, M. Bailey, C. Herberhold, Pediatric tracheal homograft reconstruction: a novel approach to complex tracheal stenoses in children. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 112, 1549–1560 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    C. Herberhold, M. Stein, M. Falkenhausen, Long-term results of homograft reconstruction of the trachea in childhood. Laryngorhinootologie 78, 692–696 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    M. J. Elliott, M. P. Haw, J. P. Jacobs, C. M. Bailey, J. N. G. Evans, C. Herberhold, Successful tracheal replacement in children using cadaveric human tracheal homograft. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 10, 702–712 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    J. P. Jacobs, J. A. Quintessenza, T. Andrews, R. P. Burke, Z. Spektor, R. E. Delius, R. J. H. Smith, M. J. Elliott, C. Herberhold, Tracheal allograft reconstruction: the total North America and worldwide pediatric experiences. Ann Thorac Surg 68, 1043–1052 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    C. L. Backer, C. Mavroudis, M. E. Dunham, L. Holinger, Intermediate-term results of the free tracheal autograft for long segment congenital tracheal stenosis. J Pediatr Surg 35(6), 813–818 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    C. L. Backer, C. Mavroudis, M. E. Gerber, L. D. Holinger, Tracheal surgery in children: an 18-year of four techniques. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 19, 777–784 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriel M. Marta
    • 1
  • Walter Klepetko
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Cardiothoracic SurgeryMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of Cardiothoracic SurgeryUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations