The Holy Grail of Hepatocyte Culturing and Therapeutic Use

  • Andreas K. Nussler
  • Natascha C. Nussler
  • Vera Merk
  • Marc Brulport
  • Wiebke Schormann
  • Ping Yao
  • Jan G. Hengstler


In the past 30 years, orthotopic liver transplantation became a routine procedure, to cure irreversible liver damage (Starzl and Lakkis 2006). However, the number of organs needed is much higher than the number of organs available, and thus since the late 1980s and early 1990s alternative therapeutic strategies have been envisaged ( These strategies include bioreactors with and without hepatocytes (Rifai et al. 2005, Gerlach 2006, Mitzner et al. 2006) hepatocytes of various species and cell lines (Enosawa et al. 2001, Donini et al. 2001, Gerlach et al. 2003) , split liver and living related liver transplantation (Otte et al. 1990, Strong 2006), as well as xenogenic organ transplantation (Starzl et al. 1993).

Bioreactor systems with primary human hepatocytes have in common that they are exclusively applied in acute liver damage, underlining their use only as a temporary bridge until a graft is available. The main...


Stem Cell Bone Marrow Cell Cell Fusion Human Hepatocyte Acute Liver Failure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas K. Nussler
    • 1
  • Natascha C. Nussler
  • Vera Merk
  • Marc Brulport
  • Wiebke Schormann
  • Ping Yao
  • Jan G. Hengstler
  1. 1.Technical University Munich, Department of TraumatologyGermany

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