Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering of Hard Tissues
Function and Structure of Bone
Bone is a specialized connective tissue that, as a part of the skeletal system, has three functions: (1) mechanical: support and site of muscle attachment for locomotion; (2) protective: for vital organs and bone marrow; and (3) metabolic: as a reserve of ions, specially calcium and phosphate, for the maintenance of serum homeostasis, which is essential to life (see Chapters 14 and 15).
Fundamental constituents of bone are cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). This ECM is formed by an organic and a mineral phase. The organic phase is mainly formed by collagen fibers (Collagen type I) and correspond to 90% of the total protein. The 10% left corresponds to other non-collagenous proteins form the organic matrix, as proteoglycans and glycoproteins (as osteoclacin, osteonectin, and osteopontin), and several growth factors. These proteins are incorporated on the collagen matrix during its formation or afterwards. Even though their function is not completely...
KeywordsContact Angle Hyaluronic Acid Bone Tissue Bioactive Glass Fibrin Sealant
The authors would like to thank to The Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, to the Departament d'Innovació, Universitats i Empresa de la Generalitat de Catalunya, and to the Marie Curie Fellowship Association for the research grants.
Some of the work described in this manuscript has been supported by Commission European Union: European project SMART-CaP ,Injectable Macroporous Biomaterials Based on Calcium Phosphate Cement Bone Regeneration, contract number: NMP3-CT-500465 ; European Project STEPS, A System Approach to Tissue Engineering Processes and Products, contract number FP6-500465.
The authors also would like to thank Dr. Samuel Stupp for kindly providing figure 17, and the companies Klockner SA, Spain, Zimmer Dental Inc. USA, as well as all the personnel of the Grup de Biomaterials, Biomecànica i Enginyeria de Teixits (BIBITE) for their contributions.
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