Basic Science and Clinical Strategies for Articular Cartilage Regeneration/Repair

  • Barry W Oakes


In the last decade, much has been learnt regarding the regeneration and repair of tissues of the skeleton. Regeneration of tissue readily occurs in the embryo, is almost absent in neonates and is never observed in adults. This may be because of the relatively high proportion of undifferentiated progenitor cells found in embryos and their relative scarcity in adults, that is, 1/10,000 mesenchyme cells in newborn and 1/2 × 106 in an 80 year old adult (Haynesworth et al. 1994). Regeneration is a slow process and seems to recapitulate many steps during embryonic development. In contrast, repair is a much more rapid process probably designed for survival and involves the usual inflammatory cell cascade followed by matrix deposition and then a remodeling process which attempts to partially regenerate damaged tissues in the adult. Repair and remodeling process can take many months to occur in the musculoskeletal system and the resulting repaired tissues, although of inferior...


Articular Cartilage Cartilage Repair Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation International Knee Documentation Committee Articular Cartilage Defect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author would like to thank Ms Maria Kouvalaris from Mercy Tissue Engineering for her great help in the preparation of this manuscript. Also Mrs Sue Connell for preparation and staining of the histology sections. Also Associate Professor Chris Little for the immuno-labeling studies presented here on selected ACI biopsies.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mercy Tissue Engineering and Department of Anatomy and Cell BiologyMonash University AustraliaMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Australia

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