Advertisement

Medical certification: Spaceflight participant medical standards and certification

Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)

Abstract

The medical certification requirements for orbital flight are by several orders of magnitude more demanding and restrictive than those for suborbital flight since most, if not all physiological systems, are affected by microgravity, some more seriously than others. In addition, significant pathophysiological effects have been observed in astronauts, such as crewmembers being incapacitated for several days early in a mission due to repeated vomiting associated with space motion sickness. Other astronauts have suffered serious postflight orthostatic intolerance induced by cardiovascular deconditioning [2, 13, 21], and yet others have experienced significant bone loss.

Keywords

National Research Council Personality Disorder Medical Examination Physiological System Orbital Space 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Atkinson M.A.; and Maclaran N.K. The pathogenesis of insulin dependent diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine, 331, 1428–1436 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Buckey Jr. J.C.; Lane, L.D.; Levine, B.D.; Watenpaugh, D.E.; Wright, S.J.; Moore, W.E.; Gaffney, A.; and Blomqvist, V.A. Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight. Journal of Applied Physiology, 81 7–18 (1996).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Chi J. (Ed.). Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 17th ed. American Public Health Association (2000).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Christensen, J.M.; and Talbot, J.M. A review of the psychosocial aspects of space flight. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 57, 203–212 (1986).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Coleman, M.E.; and James, J.T. Airborne Toxic Hazards. In: Nicogossian, A.E., Huntoon, C.L., Pool, S.L. (Eds.), Space Physiology and Medicine, Lea & Febiger (1994), pp. 141–157.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Grigoriev, A.I.; and Egorov, A.D. Physiological aspects of adaptation of human body systems during and after spacefiight. In: S.L. Bonting (Ed.), Advances in Space Biology and Medicine, Vol. 2. JAI Press (1992), pp. 43–82.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Gundel, A.; Nalishiti, V.; Reucher, E.; Vejvoda, M.; and Zulley, J. Sleep and circadian rhythm during a short space mission. Clinical Investigation, 71, 718–724 (1993).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Holland, A. Psychology of spacefiight. Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments, 5, 4–20 (2000).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Kanas, N. Psychological and Interpersonal Issue in Space. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144(6), 703–709 (1987).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    McCormick, T.J.; and Lyons T.J. Medical causes of inflight incapacitation: USAF experience 1978–1987. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 62, 882–887 (1991).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Myasnikov, V.I.; and Zamaletdinov, I.S. Psychological states and group interactions of crew members in flight. In: C.S. Huntoon; V.V. Antipov; and A.I. Grigoriev (Eds.), Space Biology and Medicine, Humans in Spaceflight Book, Vol. 2. Nauka Press (1996).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Nicholas, J.M. Small groups in orbit: Group interaction and crew performance on space station. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 58, 1009–1013(1987).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Olshansky, B. Syncope: overview and approach to management. In: B.P. Grubb; and B. Olshansky (Eds.), Syncope: Mechanisms and Management. Futura (1998), p. 18.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Penwell, L.W. Problems of intergroup behaviour in human spacefiight operations. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 27, 464–470 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Pavy-Le Traon, A.; and Roussel, B. Sleep in Space. Acta Astronautica, 29(12), 945–950 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Polyakov, V.V.; Posokhov, S.I.; Ponomaryova, I.P.; Zhukova, O.P.; Kovrov, G.V.; and Vein, A.M. Sleep in space flight. Aerospace Environmental Medicine, 28, 4–7 (1994).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Rayman R.B.; Hastings, J.D.; Kruyer, W.B.; and Levy, R.A. (Eds.). Clinical Aviation Medicine. Castle Connolly Graduate Medical Publishers (2000).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Santy P.A.; Holland A.W.; and Faulk D.M. Psychiatric diagnoses in a group of astronaut candidates. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 62, 969–973 (1991).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Santy, P.A.; Kapanka, H.; Davis, J.R.; and Stewart, D.F. Analysis of sleep on Shuttle missions. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 59, 1094–1097 (1988).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Taylor, G. Immune changes during short-duration missions. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 54(3), 202–208 (1993).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Thornton, W.E.; Moore, T.; and Pool, S. Fluid Shifts in Weightlessness. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 58(Suppl,), A86–A90 (1987).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Wolf, P.A.; Cobb, J.L.; and D’Agostino, R.B. Pathophysiology of stroke: Epidemiology of stroke. In: H.J.M. Barnett; J.P. Mohr; B.M. Stein et al. (Eds.), Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management, 2nd ed. Churchill Livingstone (1992), p. 4.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/aam/ame/guide/Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    www.nap.edu/info/browse.htmGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Praxis Publishing Ltd, Chichester, UK 2008

Personalised recommendations