The Campylobacteraceae family consists of two genera; Campylobacter and Arcobacter and members of this family were initially recognized as a veterinary importance causing abortion in animals (Table 12.1). However, in recent years they are implicated in foodborne outbreaks and considered significant human pathogens. Campylobacter causes enteritis, bacteremia, endocarditis, periodontal diseases in humans and animals, and the infection often leads to chronic sequelae such as Reiter syndrome, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Arcobacter has been identified relatively recently to cause diarrhea in humans and abortion in animals. Helicobacter is closely related to Campylobacter but is mostly associated with gastric ulcer in humans Campylobacter (curved rod in Greek) may have been discovered in the late nineteenth century (1886) by Theodor Escherich from an infant who died of cholera and called the disease “cholera infantum.” Later in 1913, McFayden and Stockman identified an organism from an aborted sheep and called it, Vibrio fetus (now known as Campylobacter fetus). Since then Campylobacter was considered a significant animal pathogen. In 1972, Dekyser and Butzler isolated a Campylobacter strain from blood and feces of a woman who suffered from hemorrhagic enteritis. In the last 30 years, Campylobacter has been recognized as a leading pathogen causing diseases in both animals and humans and considered a zoonotic pathogen. A recent report by CDC indicates that between 1998 and 2002 Campylobacter was responsible for 61 outbreaks with 1,440 cases in the US. However, it has been estimated that the Campylobacter-related infection is the highest among all the foodborne bacterial infections in the US with an estimated 1.9 million cases per year and many of these cases are associated with consumption of chicken.
KeywordsAmplify Fragment Length Polymorphism Foodborne Pathogen Iron Acquisition Cytolethal Distend Toxin Poultry Carcass
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