From Old Threats to Enigmatic Enemies:The Evolution of European Policies from Low Intensity Violence to Homegrown Terrorism


Different patterns of violence have recently disrupted European cities. In France, 8,700 vehicles were burnt, 255 schools, 233 public buildings and 51 post offices damaged and 140 public-transport vehicles stoned during three weeks of disturbances which took place in three hundred neighborhoods of several cities in November 2005. Although hundreds of editorials were written or pronounced after these events (with a lot of sympathy for the rioters expressed by the jet set), what occurred gave an impression of “deja vu,” as if urban threats from marginalized places and residents had to periodically resurface at the core of society1.


Youth Violence Muslim Community Immigrant Youth Young Offender Male Youth 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Sorbonne (Paris IV)Paris cedex 05France

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