The esophagus is composed of a nonkeratinized squamous epithelium overlying a lamina propria and thin muscularis mucosa. The submucosa contains lymphatics and mucous glands with cuboidal-lined ducts running up to the luminal surface. Under the submucosa is muscularis propria (skeletal muscle proximally, smooth muscle distally), surrounded by the adventitia, which is continuous with mediastinum.

Most esophageal biopsies are performed on patients with symptoms of reflux or dysphagia and often the goal is to rule out Barrett’s esophagus, a glandular metaplasia that puts the patient at increased risk for adenocarcinoma. Other common findings include reflux changes in the squamous epithelium, ulcers, or infection. Squamous dysplasia is actually uncommon.


Goblet Cell Squamous Epithelium Eosinophilic Esophagitis Granular Cell Tumor Mucous Gland 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

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