The thyroid has two basic cell types: the follicular epithelium (TTF-1 and thyroglobulin positive) and the C cells (TTF-1, neuroendocrine-marker, and calcitonin positive; thyroglobulin negative). Normal follicular epithelium is low cuboidal. The stroma or interstitium is scant but highly vascular.

Inflammatory diseases of the thyroid are rarely seen in surgical pathology, with a few exceptions detailed in this chapter. Conceptually, they can be classified by type of response:

  1. 1.

    cute inflammation and necrosis: acute thyroiditis

  2. 2.

    oreign body giant cells and lymphocytes, diffuse: subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain’s syndrome)

  3. 3.

    istiocytes, lymphocytes, and rare giant cells, focal: palpation thyroiditis (a reaction to physical trauma, not a primary inflammatory disease)

  4. 4.

    ymphocytic infiltrate with germinal centers: lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

  5. 5.

    Dense fibrosis and chronic inflammation: sclerosing Hashimoto’s versus fibrosing thyroiditis (Riedel’s, a very rare entity)



Papillary Carcinoma Follicular Carcinoma Medullary Carcinoma Follicular Adenoma Anaplastic Carcinoma 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

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