Conduct disorder (CD) is the diagnostic classification applied to children who display a pervasive and persistent pattern of problem behaviors characterized by aggression, destruction, deceitfulness, and serious violations of rules (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The estimated lifetime prevalence of CD in the United States is 9.5% (12% among males and 7% among females) (Nock, Kazdin, Hiripi, & Kessler, 2006). The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1999) reports that CD affects 1% to 4% of schoolchildren. In the United States, CD symptoms are the primary presenting problems for psychiatric referral among children and adolescents (Kazdin, 1995). It is estimated that between 30% and 50% of all child psychiatry referrals involve CD (Kazdin, 1997). Moreover, children diagnosed with CD have higher levels of distress and impairment in almost all domains of adjustment, relative to children with other mental health disorders (Lambert, Wahler, Andrade, & Bickman, 2001). Early-onset conduct problems in childhood are a major risk factor for the development of delinquency, violence, antisocial behavior, impoverished social ties, and drug or substance abuse in later years (Bassarath, 2001; Patterson, DeGarmo, & Knutson, 2000). Thus, it is clear that school professionals need to be prepared to identify and provide support services for children with CD.
KeywordsConduct Disorder School District Antisocial Behavior Oppositional Defiant Disorder Conduct Disorder
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