Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: Neuroimaging, Neuroendocrine, and Psychophysiological Findings

  • Scott F. Coffey
  • Jennifer P. Read
  • Melissa M. Norberg
Part of the Series in Anxiety and Related Disorders book series (SARD)


Negative Emotion Ptsd Symptom Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Anxiety Sensitivity Hippocampal Volume 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acierno, R., Resnick, H., Kilpatrick, D. G., Saunders, B., & Best, C. L. (1999). Risk factors for rape, physical assault, and posttraumatic stress disorder in women: Examination of differential multivariate relationships. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 541–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Addolorato, G., Leggio, L., Abenavoli, L., & Gasbarrini, G. (2005). Neurobiological and clinical aspects of craving in alcohol addiction: A review. Addictive Behaviors, 30, 1209–1224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Text Revision.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Armony, J. L., & LeDoux, J. E. (1997). How the brain processes emotional information. In R. Yehuda & A. C. McFarlane (Eds.), Psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (Vol. 821, pp. 259–270). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  5. Back, S. E., Brady, K. T., Jaanimägi, U., & Jackson, J. L. (2006). Cocaine dependence and PTSD: A pilot study of symptom interplay and treatment preferences. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 351–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker, T. B., Piper, M. E., McCarthy, D. E., Majeskie, M. R., & Fiore, M. C. (2004). Addiction motivation reformulated: An affective processing model of negative reinforcement. Psychological Review, 111, 33–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  8. Blanchard, E. B., Kolb, L. C., & Prins, A. (1991). Psychophysiological responses in the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 179, 97–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonin, M. F., Norton, G. R., Asmundson, G. J. G., Dicurzio, S., & Pidlubney, S. (2000). Drinking away the hurt: The nature and prevalence of PTSD in substance abuse patients attending a community-based treatment program. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 31, 55–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bonne, O., Brandes, D., Gilboa, A., Gomori, J. M., Shenton, M. E., Pitman, R. K., et al. (2001). Longitudinal MRI study of hippocampal volume in trauma survivors with PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1248–1251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bremner, J. D., Randall, P., Vermetten, E., Staib, L., Bronen, R. A., Mazure, C., et al. (1997). Magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood physical and sexual abuse–a preliminary report. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 23–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bremner, J. D., Southwick, S. M., Darnell, A., & Charney, D. S. (1996). Chronic PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans: Course of illness and substance abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 369–375.Google Scholar
  13. Breslau, N., Davis, G. C., Andreski, P., & Peterson, E. L. (1991). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban population of young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 216–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, P. J., Stout, R., & Gannon-Rowley, J. (1998). Substance use disorder-PTSD comorbidity: Patients’ perceptions of symptom interplay and treatment issues. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 15, 445–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cannon, D. S., Rubin, A., Keefe, C. K., Black, J. L., Leeka, J. K., & Phillips, L. A. (1992). Affective correlates of alcohol and cocaine use. Addictive Behaviors, 17, 517–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carter, B. L., & Tiffany, S. T. (1999). Meta-analysis of cue-reactivity in addiction research. Addiction, 94, 327–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Charney, D. S. (2003). Neuroanatomical circuits modulating fear and anxiety behaviors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 108(suppl 417), 38–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chilcoat, H. D., & Breslau, N. (1998). Investigations of causal pathways between PTSD and drug use disorders. Addictive Behaviors, 23, 827–840.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Childress, A. R., Ehrman, R., McLellan, A. T., MacRae, J., Natale, M., & O’Brien, C. P. (1994). Can induced moods trigger drug-related responses in opiate abuse patients. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 11, 17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cloitre, M., Tardiff, K., Marzuk, P. M., Leon, A. C., & Portera, L. (1996). Childhood abuse and subsequent sexual assault among female inpatients. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 473–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Coffey, S. F., Saladin, M. E., Drobes, D. J., Brady, K. T., Dansky, B. S., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2002). Trauma and substance cue reactivity in individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and cocaine or alcohol dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 65, 115–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coffey, S. F., Stasiewicz, P. R., Hughes, P. M., & Brimo, M. L. (2006). Trauma-focused imaginal exposure for individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence: Revealing mechanisms of alcohol craving in a cue reactivity paradigm. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20(4), 425–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Conrod, P. J., Pihl, R. O., Stewart, S. H., & Dongier, M. (2000). Validation of a system of classifying female substance abusers on the basis of personality and motivational risk factors for substance abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14, 243–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cooney, N. L., Litt, M. D., Morse, P. A., Bauer, L. O., & Gaupp, L. (1997). Alcohol cue reactivity, negative-mood reactivity, and relapse in treated alcoholic men. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 243–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. De Bellis, M. D., Clark, D. B., Beers, S. R., Soloff, P. H., Boring, A. M., Hall, J., et al. (2000). Hippocampal volume in adolescent-onset alcohol use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 737–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Di Chiara, G. (1997). Alcohol and dopamine. Alcohol Health & Research World, 21, 108–114.Google Scholar
  27. Emilien, G., Penasse, C., Charles, G., Martin, D., Lasseaux, L., & Waltregny, A. (2000). Post-traumatic stress disorder: Hypotheses from clinical neuropsychology and psychopharmacology research. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 4, 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Foa, E. B., & Rothbaum, B. O. (1998). Treating the trauma of rape: Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  29. Glover, D. A., & Poland, R. E. (2002). Urinary cortisol and catecholamines in mothers of child cancer survivors with and without PTSD. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27, 805–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grant, B. F. (1997). Prevalence and correlates of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol dependence in the United States: Results of the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiological Survey. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58, 464–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Griffin, A. L., & Berry, S. D. (2004). Inactivation of the anterior cingulate cortex impairs extinction of rabbit jaw movement conditioning and prevents extinction-related inhibition of hippocampal activity. Learning and Memory, 11, 604–610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gurvits, T. V., Shenton, M. E., Hokama, H., Ohta, H., Lasko, N. B., Gilbertson, M. W., et al. (1996). Magnetic resonance imaging study of hippocampal volume in chronic, combat–related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 40, 1091–1099.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Keane, T. M., Kolb, L. C., Kaloupek, D. G., Orr, S. P., Blanchard, E. B., Thomas, R. G., et al. (1998). Utility of psychophysiology measurement in the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder: Results from a department of Veteran's Affairs cooperative study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 914–923.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., et al. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 313–321.Google Scholar
  35. Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughest, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kilpatrick, D. G., Acierno, R., Saunders, B., Resnick, H. S., Best, C. L., & Schnurr, P. P. (2000). Risk factors for adolescent substance abuse and dependence: Data from a national sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 19–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kilts, C. D., Schweitzer, J. B., Quinn, C. K., Gross, R. E., Faber, T. L., Muhammad, F., et al. (2001). Neural activity related to drug craving in cocaine addiction. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 334–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Koob, G. F. (1999). Corticotropin-releasing factor, norepinephrine, and stress. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 1167–1180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kushner, M. G., Thuras, P., Abrams, K., Brekke, M., & Stritar, L. (2001). Anxiety mediates the association between anxiety sensitivity and coping-related drinking motives in alcoholism treatment patients. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 869–885.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lemieux, A. M., & Coe, C. L. (1995). Abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder: Evidence for chronic neuroendocrine activation in women. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57, 105–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Lowman, C., Allen, J., Stout, R. L., & The Relapse Research Group (1996). Section II. Marlatt’s taxonomy of high-risk situations for relapse: Replication and extension. Addiction, 91, S51–S71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. MacDonald, A. B., Baker, J. M., Stewart, S. H., & Skinner, M. (2000). The effects of alcohol on response to hyperventilation in high and low anxiety sensitive participants. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 1656–1665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Maisto, S. A., Carey, K. B., & Bradizza, C. M. (1999). Social learning theory. In K. E. Leonard & H. T. Blane (Eds.), Psychological theories of drinking and alcoholism (2nd ed., pp. 106–163). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  44. Mazziotta, J. C., & Frackowiak, R. S. J. (2000). The study of human diseases with brain mapping methods. In J. Mazziotta, A. W. Toga, & R. Frackowiak (Eds.) Brain mapping: The disorders (pp. 3–31). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  45. Meany, M. J., Brake, W., & Gratton, A. (2002). Environmental regulation of the development of mesolimbic dopamine systems: a neurobiological mechanism for vulnerability to drug abuse. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27, 127–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Miller, M. W., & Litz, B. T. (2004). Emotional-processing in posttraumatic stress disorder II: Startle reflex modulation during picture processing. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 451–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. North, C. S., Nixon, S. J., Shariat, S., Mallonee, S., McMillen, J. C., Spitznagel, E. L., et al. (1999). Psychiatric disorders among survivors of the Oklahoma City Bombing. JAMA, 282, 755–762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Orr, S. P., Lasko, N. B., Metzger, L. J., Berry, N. J., Ahern, C. E., & Pitman, R. K. (1998). Psychophysiologic assessment of women with posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 906–913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pezawas, L., Fischer, G., Podreka, I., Schindler, S., Brucke, T., Jagsch, R., et al. (2002). Opioid addiction changes cerebral blood flow symmetry. Neuropsychobiology, 45, 67–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Piazza, P. V., & Le Moal, M. L. (1996). Pathophysiological basis of vulnerability to drug abuse: Role of an interaction between stress, glucocorticoids, and dopaminergic neurons. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 36, 359–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pfefferbaum, B., & Doughty, D. E. (2001). Increased alcohol use in a treatment sample of Oklahoma City Bombing victims. Psychiatry, 64, 296–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Rauch, S. L., van der Kolk, B. A., Fisler, R. E., Alpert, N. M., Orr, S. P., Savage, C. R., et al. (1996). A symptom provocation study of posttraumatic stress disorder using positron emission tomography and script-driven imagery. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 380–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Read, J. P., Brown, P. J., & Kahler, C. W. (2004). Substance use and posttraumatic stress disorders: Symptom interplay and effects on outcome. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 1665–1672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Resnick, H. S., Kilpatrick, D. G., Dansky, B. S., Saunders, B. E., & Best, C. L. (1993). Prevalence of civilian trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in a representative national sample of women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 984–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Saladin, M. E., Brady, K. T., Dansky, B. S., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (1995). Understanding comorbidity between PTSD and substance use disorders: Two preliminary investigations. Addictive Behaviors, 20, 643–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Saladin, M. E., Drobes, D. J., Coffey, S. F., Dansky, B. S., Brady, K. T., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2003). PTSD symptom severity as a predictor of cue-elicited drug craving in victims of violent crime. Addictive Behaviors, 28, 1611–1629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Semple, W. E., Goyer, P. F., McCormick, R., Donovan, B., Muzic R. F., Rugle, L., et al. (2000). Higher brain blood flow at amygdala and lower frontal cortex blood flow in PTSD patients with comorbid cocaine and alcohol abuse compared with normals. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 63, 65–74.Google Scholar
  58. Semple, W. E., McCormick, R., Goyer, P. F., Compton-Toth, B., Morris, E. D., Muswick, G., et al. (1996). Attention and regional cerebral blood flow in posttraumatic stress disorder patients with substance abuse histories. Psychiatry Research, 67, 17–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shin, L. M., McNally, R. J., Kossyln, S. M. Thompson, W. L., Rauch, S. L., Alpert, N. M., et al. (1999). Regional cerebral blood flow during script-driven imagery in childhood sexual abuse-related PTSD. A Pet investigation. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 575–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Shin, L. M., Whalen, P. J., Pitman, R. K., Bush, G., Macklin, M. L., Lasko, N. B., et al. (2001). An fMRI study of anterior cingulate function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 932–942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sinha, R., Talih, M., Malison, R., Cooney, N., Anderson, G. M., Kree, M. J. (2003). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympatho-andreno-medullary responses during stress-induced and drug cue-induced cocaine craving states. Psychopharmacology, 170, 62–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Stasiewicz, P. R., & Maisto, S. A. (1993). Two-factor avoidance theory: The role of negative affect in the maintenance of substance use and substance use disorders. Behavior Therapy, 24, 337–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stewart, S. H. (1996). Alcohol abuse in individuals exposed to trauma: A critical review. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 83–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stewart, S. H., Conrod, P. J., Pihl, R. O., & Dongier, M. (1999). Relationships between posttraumatic stress symptom dimensions and substance dependence in a community-recruited sample of substance-abusing women. Addictive Behaviors, 13, 78–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Stewart, S. H., & Pihl, R. O. (1994). The effects of alcohol administration on psychophysiological and subjective-emotional responses to aversive stimulation in anxiety sensitive women. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 8, 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Stewart, S. H., Mitchell, T. L., Wright, K. D., & Loba, P. (2004). The relations of PTSD symptoms to alcohol use and coping drinking in volunteers who responded to the Swissair Flight 111 airline disaster. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 18, 51–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Swift, R. M. (1999). Medications and alcohol craving. Alcohol Research and Health, 23, 207–213.Google Scholar
  68. Taylor, S., Koch, W. J., & McNally, R. J. (1992). How does anxiety sensitive vary across the anxiety disorders? Journal of Anxiety Disorder, 6, 249–259.Google Scholar
  69. Tucker, D. (1981). Lateral brain function, emotion, and conceptualization. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 19–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Turnbull, A. V., & Rivier, C. L. (1999). Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis by cytokines: Actions and mechanisms of action. Physiological Reviews, 79, 1–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Wexler, B. E., Gottschalk, C. H., Fulbright, R. K., Prohovnik, I., Lacadie, C. M., Rounsaville, B. J., et al. (2001). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of cocaine craving. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 86–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Yehuda, R. (2002). Current status of cortisol findings in post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 25, 341–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Yehuda, R., Golier, J. A., Halligan, S. L., Meaney, M., & Bierer, L. M. (2004). The ACTH response to dexamethasone in PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1397–1403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Yehuda, R., Kahana, B., Binder-Brynes, K. Southwick, S. M., Mason J. W., & Giller, E. L. (1995). Low urinary cortisol excretion in Holocaust survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 982–986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Yehuda, R., Levengood, R. A., Schmeidler, J., Wilson, S., Guo, L. S., & Gerber, D. (1996). Increased pituitary activation following metyrapone administration in post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 21, 1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Young, E. A., & Breslau, N. (2004). Cortisol and catecholamines in posttraumatic stress disorder: An epidemiologic community study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 394–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott F. Coffey
    • 1
  • Jennifer P. Read
  • Melissa M. Norberg
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Human BehaviorThe University of Mississippi Medical CenterJacksonUSA 39216

Personalised recommendations