Advertisement

The birth of Buran

Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)

Abstract

Although there was significant spaceplane research in the Soviet Union in the 1960s, it was still dwarfed by the effort the country put into its mainstream manned space program, the one that was visible to the outside world. In terms of successes, there were two distinct periods in the Soviet piloted space program in the 1960s. The first part of the decade was marked by amazing triumphs that stunned the whole world. There was the pioneering flight of Yuriy Gagarin in 1961, the first flight into space by a woman (Vostok-6 in 1963), the first three-man flight (Voskhod in 1964), and the first spacewalk (Voskhod-2 in 1965). Then things started going downhill in spectacular fashion. First, there was the death in January 1966 of chief designer Sergey Korolyov, the mastermind behind the Soviet Union’s early space triumphs. After a two-year gap in piloted space missions, the maiden manned flight of the Soyuz capsule ended in disaster with the death of cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov in April 1967.

Keywords

Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle Design Bureau Payload Capacity Chief Designer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    D. Jenkins, The History of the National Space Transportation System, Hinckley: Midland Publishing, 2001.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Y. Semyonov, Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya Energiya imeni S.P. Korolyova 1946–1996, Moscow: RKK Energiya, 1996, pp. 278–279, 294–296.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    B. Hendrickx interviews with VPK veteran Emil Popov, July 2005; V. Lukashevich, “A Soviet copy of the Shuttle: the orbital ship OS-120” (in Russian), Novosti kosmonavtiki, 8/2006, pp. 64–67.Google Scholar
  4. [4]Ts. Solovyov, Work in the USSR on reusable space transportation systems (1972–1975) (in Russian), paper presented at the Tsiolkovskiy readings in Kaluga, September 1992; V. Burdakov et al.: “Reusable space transportation systems: History and future prospects” (in Russian), paper presented at the International Symposium on the History of Aviation and Cosmonautics in Moscow, June 1995; V. Favorskiy, I. Meshcheryakov, Voyenno-kosmicheskiye sily, kniga 2, Moscow: Izdatelstvo Sankt-Peterburgskoy tipografii, 1998, pp. 54, 292.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    A. Kuznetsov, Mnogorazovaya kosmicheskaya sistema Energiya-Buran, Moscow: OmV-Luch, 2004, p. 18; V. Lukashevich, op. cit. Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    B. Hendrickx correspondence with V. Lukashevich, 14 April 2006.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Y. Semyonov, op. cit., pp. 40–41.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    V. Lukashevich, “The OK-92 that became Buran (part 1)” (in Russian), Novosti kosmonavtiki, 3/2006, pp. 56–58.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    B. Chertok, Rakety i lyudi: lunnaya gonka, Moscow: Mashinostroyeniye, 1999, p. 473.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Y. Semyonov, op. cit., pp. 281–286.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Y. Semyonov, op. cit., p. 288; R. Sagdeyev, The Making of a Soviet Scientist, New York: Wiley, 1994, pp. 183–184.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    G. Nazarov, “You cannot paper space with rubles” (in Russian), Molodaya Gvardiya, April 1990, pp. 192–207.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    S. Aleksandrov, “Who needs it, this Buran?” (in Russian), Propeller /Apogey, June 1995, p. 1; Y. Mozzhorin, Tak eto bylo, Moscow: ZAO Mezhdunarodnaya programma obrazovaniya, 2000, pp. 340–341.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    J. Harford, Korolev, New York: Wiley, 1997, p. 314.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    B. Gubanov, Triumf i tragediya Energii (torn 3: Energiya-Buran), Nizhniy Novgorod: Izdatelstvo Nizhegorodskogo instituta ekonomicheskogo razvitiya, 1998, p. 33.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    D. Jenkins, op. cit., p. 101; D. Payson, “The Buran decision” (in Russian), Rossiyskiy kosmos, 6/2006, pp. 40–43.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    B. Gubanov, op. cit., p. 33.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    B. Hendrickx interviews with Emil Popov.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    R. Sagdeyev, op. cit., p. 147.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Ibid., p. 213.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    V. Lukashevich, “The OK-92 that became Buran (part 1)”, op. cit. Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    V. Favorskiy, I. Meshcheryakov, op. cit., p. 55.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    TV documentary “Udarnaya sila”, shown on the Russian ORT television channel, 20 March 2007.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    R. Sagdeyev, op. cit., p. 213.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    The text of the decree is almost completely reproduced in A. Kuznetsov, op. cit., pp. 6–10.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    A. Bruk, Illyustrirovannaya entsiklopediya samolyotov EMZ im. V.M. Myasishcheva (torn 3, chast 1), Moscow: Aviko Press, 1999, p. 28.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    B. Chertok, op. cit., p. 523.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    R. Sagdeyev, op. cit., p. 184.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Y. Semyonov, op. cit., p. 362.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    V. Favorskiy, I. Meshcheryakov, Voyenno-kosmicheskiye sily, kniga 1, Moscow: Izdatelstvo Sankt-Peterburgskoy tipografii, 1997, p. 240.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    A. Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo, Washington, D.C.: NASA, 2000, p. 752; B. Katorgin, NPO Energomash imeni akademika V.P. Glushko. Put v raketnoy tekhnike, Moscow: Mashinostroyeniye/Polyot, 2004, p. 427.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    V. Rakhmanin, Odnazhdy i navsegda: kniga o Valentine Petroviche Glushko, Moscow: Mashinostroyeniye, 1998, p. 602; V. Trofimov, Osushchestvleniye mechty, Moscow: Mashinostroyeniye/Polyot, 2001, p. 45.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    V. Rakhmanin, Odnazhdy i navsegda: kniga o Valentine Petroviche Glushko, Moscow: Mashinostroyeniye, 1998, p. 602; V. Trofimov, Osushchestvleniye mechty, Moscow: Mashinostroyeniye/Polyot, 2001 op. cit., p. 603; V. Trofimov, op. cit., p. 49.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    V. Trofimov, op. cit., pp. 70–71.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
  36. [36]
    V. Gladkiy, “How the Energiya-Buran project was born” (in Russian), Aviatsiya i kosmonavtika, 1/2002.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    B. Gubanov, op. cit., p. 92; B. Katorgin, op. cit., pp. 202, 208, 428.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    B. Chertok, op. cit., p. 476.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    V. Filin, Put k Energii, Moscow: Logos, 2001, p. 39.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    KB Khimavtomatiki, stranitsy istorii, torn 1, Voronezh: KBKhA, 1995, p. 125.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    A. Siddiqi, op. cit., p. 649.Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    B. Katorgin, op. cit., p. 427.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    V. Trofimov, op. cit., p. 140; S. Konyukhov, Prizvany vremenem: rakety i kosmicheskiye apparaty konstruktorskogo byuro Yuzhnoye, Dnepropetrovsk: Art Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  44. [44]KB Khimavtomatika, stranitsy istorii, op. cit., p. 72.Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    V. Favorskiy, I. Meshcheryakov, Voyenno-kosmicheskiye sily, kniga 1, op. cit., pp. 237–239; B. Gubanov, op. cit., pp. 55–56.Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    N. Anfimov, Generalnyy konstruktor: kniga o Vladimire Fyodoroviche Utkine, Korolyov: TsNIIMash, 2003, p. 47; V. Favorskiy, I. Meshcheryakov, Kosmonavtika i raketno-kosmicheskaya promyshlennost: razvitiye otrasli (1976–1992), Moscow: Mashinostroyeniye, 2003, p. 54; D. Vorontsov, “The compromise N-l” (in Russian), Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1/2006, p. 69.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    B. Gubanov, op. cit., pp. 55–59; S. Konyukhov, op. cit. Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    B. Chertok, op. cit., pp. 475–476.Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    G. Vetrov, “Development of Heavy Launch Vehicles in the USSR”, paper presented at the 10th International Symposium on the History of Astronautics and Aeronautics in Moscow, June 1995; V. Gladkiy, op. cit. Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    V. Gladkiy, op. cit. Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    V. Lukashevich, “The OK-92 that became Buran” (part 1), op. cit. Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    V. Gladkiy, op. cit. Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    V. Lukashevich, “The OK-92 that became Buran” (part 1), op. cit. Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    I. Afanasyev, “Unknown ships” (in Russian), Astronomiya, kosmonavtika (Znaniye), 12/1991, pp. 57–60; I. Afanasyev, “The reusable ship with vertical landing” (in Russian), Novosti kosmonavtiki, 6/2004, pp. 71–72; V. Lukashevich, “The OK-92 that became Buran” (part 2) (in Russian), Novosti kosmonavtiki, 4/2006, pp. 58–62; V. Lukashevich, “The history of the reusable orbital ship Buran” (in Russian), on-line at www.buran.ru Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    B. Gubanov, op. cit., pp. 38–39; V. Lukashevich, “A Soviet copy of the shuttle: The orbital ship OS-120”, op. cit. Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    V. Lukashevich, “The OK-92 that became Buran” (part 1), op. cit. Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    V. Gladkiy, op. cit. Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    V. Lukashevich, “The OK-92 that became Buran” (part 2), op. cit. Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    KB Khimavtomatiki, stranitsy istorii, op. cit., pp. 72, 125; B. Gubanov, op. cit., p. 39.Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    V. Kazmin, “The quiet tragedy of EPOS” (in Russian), Krylya rodiny, January 1991, pp. 4–5.Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    Interview with G. Lozino-Lozinskiy on the www.buran.ru website.Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    Y. Semyonov, op. cit., p. 380; V. Gladkiy, op. cit.; A. Brak, op. cit., pp. 28–30, 209.Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    Y. Trufakin, Orbitalnyy korabl Buran i proyektno-nauchnyy otdel “Dinamika polyota” v NPO Molniya, 2002, p. 10.Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    B. Gubanov, op. cit., p. 58.Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    S. Konyukhov, op. cit. Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    V. Gladkiy, op. cit. Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    V. Rakhmanin, Odnazhdy i navsegda: kniga o Valentine Petroviche Glushko, Moscow: Mashinostroyeniye, 1998, p. 602; V. Trofimov, Osushchestvleniye mechty, Moscow: Mashinostroyeniye/Polyot, 2001 op. cit., p. 603; V. Trofimov, op. cit., pp. 610–615; B. Katorgin, op. cit., p. 126.Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    V. Favorskiy, I. Meshcheryakov, Voyenno-kosmicheskiye sily, kniga 2, op. cit., pp. 55–56; B. Gubanov, op. cit., pp. 40–41.Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    S. Aleksandrov, op. cit.; Y. Mozzhorin, op. cit., pp. 342–343.Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    Y. Semyonov, op. cit., pp. 362–363; B. Gubanov, op. cit., p. 43.Google Scholar
  71. [71]
    Y. Semyonov, op. cit., p. 363; V. Favorskiy, I. Meshcheryakov, Voyenno-kosmicheskiye sily, kniga 2, op. cit., pp. 57; B. Gubanov, op. cit., p. 44.Google Scholar
  72. [72]
    V. Filin on website www.buran.ru Google Scholar
  73. [73]
    V. Bugrov, “15th anniversary of Buran’s flight” (in Russian), Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1/2004, pp. 70–72.Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    V. Gudilin, “Take-off and landing of Buran” (in Russian), on-line at www.buran.ru/htm/ gudilin.htm Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    B. Gubanov, op. cit., pp. 41–42.Google Scholar
  76. [76]
    B. Gubanov, op. cit., p. 297.Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    A. Yuskovets, “On the launch pad: A conversation with Yuriy Pavlovich Semyonov” (in Russian), Leninskoye znamya, 16 February 1989.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Praxies Publishing Ltd, Chichester, UK 2007

Personalised recommendations