Samplers, rovers and orbiters

Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)


When Luna 15 was smashed to pieces in the Sea of Crises in July 1969, Russia’s plan to upstage Apollo by the first automatic recovery of lunar soil came unstuck. But the Soviet Union permitted the programme to continue, for two reasons: first, because the series could produce a credible automatic programme for the exploration of the moon; and, second, because the series was important if the Soviet man-on-the-moon programme were to be completed after all. Such hopes still existed in reality up to the summer of 1974 and on paper for another two years.


Landing Site Lunar Surface Lunar Soil Lunar Rover Panoramic Camera 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Clark, Phillip S.: Masses of Soviet Luna spacecraft. Space Chronicle, Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, vol. 58, supplement 2, 2005.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Gatland, Kenneth: Robot explorers. Blandford, London, 1972; Ulivi, Paolo: Moon exploration-an engineering history. Springer-Verlag, London, 2003.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Ball, Andrew: Automatic Interplanetary Stations. Paper given to BIS, 7th June 2003.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Chaikin, Andrew: The other Moon landings. Air and Space, vol. 18, #6, February/March 2004.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Carrier, W. David III: Soviet rover systems. Paper presented at Space programmes and technology conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Huntsville, AL, 24th–26th March 1992. Lunar Geotechnical Institute, Lakeland, FL.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Cirou, Alan: L’histoire secrète des Lunokhod. Ciel et Espace, septembre 2004 (avec Jean-Rene Germain).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Tyulin, Georgi: Memoirs, in John Rhea (ed.): Roads to space-an oral history of the Soviet space programme. McGraw-Hill, London, 1995.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Vasilyev, V.: Drilling in the lunar highlands. Nedelya, 21st–27th February 1972.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Grahn, Sven: Radio systems used by the Luna 15-24 series of spacecraft, http://www., 2001.
  10. [10]
    Chaikin, Andrew: The other Moon landings. Air and Space, vol. 18, #6, February/March 2004.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Surkov, Yuri: Exploration of terrestrial planets from spacecraft-instrumentation, investiga-tion, interpretation, 2nd edition. Wiley/Praxis, Chichester, UK, 1997.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Huntress, W.T., Moroz, V.I. and Shevalev, I.L.: Lunar and robotic exploration missions in the 20th century. Space Science Review, vol. 107, 2003.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Grahn, Sven: Tracking Luna 24 from Florida and Sweden, svengrahn/histind, 2001.
  14. [14]
    Kemurdzhian, A.L., Gromov, V.V., Kazhakalo, I.F., Kozlov, G.V., Komissarov, V.I., Korepanov, G.N., Martinov, B.N., Malenkov, V.I., Mityskevich, K.V., Mishkinyuk et al.: Soviet developments of planet rovers 1964–1990. CNES and Editions Cepadues: Missions, technologies and design of planetary mobile vehicles, 1993, Proceedings of conference, Toulouse, France, September 1992.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Pomeroy, John H. (ed.): Soviet-American conference on the geochemistry of the moon and planets. NASA, Washington DC, 1977, in two parts.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Praxis Publishing Ltd, Chichester, UK 2007

Personalised recommendations