New Aspects on Diagnosis and Transmission of Hepatitis B in Pediatric Patients and Pregnant Women
Epidemiologic studies of hepatitis B virus (HBV) show varying levels of endemicity world-wide. The prevalence of chronic HBV in developed nations of Western Europe and North America is about 0.1–0.5% and HBV infection in these societies is usually acquired in adult life through parental or sexual contact. In contrast, in less developed countries as sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Far East, HBV is highly endemic and the majority of infections occur in infancy and childhood through horizontal transmission (ie that occurring without apparent parental, sexual or perinatal exposure).
KeywordsHorizontal Transmission Breakthrough Infection Post Exposure Prophylaxis HBeAg Status High Virus Level
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