Advertisement

Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, a fastidious, microaerophilic bacterium that replicates slowly and requires special media to grow in the laboratory (Shapiro and Gerber 2000). The organism has been subclassified into several genomospecies, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii and others. Different genomospecies seem to be associated with an increased likelihood of certain specific manifestations of Lyme disease — for example, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto seems to have a prediction to cause arthritis (if not treated early), while B. garinii seems to be associated with an increased risk of neurological manifestations of Lyme disease. In the United States, only B. burgdorferi sensu stricto has been isolated from humans. In contrast, there is substantial variation in the genomospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolated from humans in Europe.

Keywords

Lyme Disease Sensu Stricto Nonspecific Symptom Borrelia Burgdorferi Erythema Migrans 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Centers for Disease Control. (2004). Lyme disease – United States, 2001–2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 53:365–369.Google Scholar
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1995). Recommendations for test performance and interpretation from the Second National Conference on Serologic Diagnosis of Lyme Disease. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 44:590–591.Google Scholar
  3. Cooper JD and Feder HM Jr. (2004). Inaccurate information about Lyme disease on the internet. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 23:1105–1108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ettestad PJ, Campbell GL, and Welbel SF, et al. (1995). Biliary complications in the treatment of unsubstantiated Lyme disease. J Infect Dis, 171:356–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Feder HM Jr, Gerber MA, and Luger SW, et al. (1992). Persistence of serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated for Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis, 15:788–793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Gerber MA and Zalneraitis EL. (1994). Childhood neurologic disorders and Lyme disease during pregnancy. Pediatr Neurol, 11:41–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gerber MA, Shapiro ED, and Burke GS, et al. (1996). Lyme disease in children in south eastern Connecticut. N Engl J Med, 335:1270–1274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kalish RA, Kaplan RF, Taylor E, Jones-Woodward L, Workman K, and Steere AC. (2001). Evaluation of study patients with Lyme disease, 10–20 year follow-up. J Infect Dis, 183:453–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Klempner MS, Hu LT, and Evans J, et al. (2001). Two controlled trials of antibiotic treatment in patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med, 345:85–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Nadelman RB and Wormser GP. (1998). Lyme borreliosis. Lancet, 352:557–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Nadelman RB, Nowakowski J, and Fish D, et al. (2001). Prophylaxis with single-dose doxycycline for the prevention of Lyme disease after an Ixodes scapularis tick bite. N Engl J Med, 345:79–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Piesman J, Mather TN, Sinsky RJ, and Spielman A. (1987). Duration of tick attachment and Borrelia burgdorferi transmission. J Clin Microbiol, 25:557–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Rauter C and Hartung T. (2005). Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe: a metaanalysis. Appl Environ Microbiol, 71:7203–7216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Reid MC, Schoen RT, Evans J, Rosenberg JC, and Horwitz RI. (1998). The consequences of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of Lyme disease: an observational study. Ann Intern Med, 128:354–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Seltzer EG and Shapiro ED. (1996). Misdiagnosis of Lyme disease: when not to order serologic tests. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 15:762–763.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Seltzer EG, Gerber MA, and Cartter ML, et al. (2000). Long-term outcomes of persons with Lyme disease. JAMA, 283:609–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shapiro ED. (2001). Doxycycline for tick bites – not for everyone. N Engl J Med, 345:133–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Shapiro ED and Gerber MA. (2000). Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis, 31:533–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Silver HM. (1997). Lyme disease during pregnancy. Infect Dis Clin N Am, 11:93–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Steere AC. (2001). Lyme disease. N Engl J Med, 345:115–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Steere AC, Taylor E, McHugh GL, and Logigian EL. (1993). The overdiagnosis of Lyme disease. JAMA, 269:1812–1816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tugwell P, Dennis DT, and Weinstein A, et al. (1997). Laboratory evaluation in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med, 127:1109–1123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ullmann AJ, Lane RS, and Kurtenbach K, et al. (2003). Bacteriolytic activity of selected vertebrate sera for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia bissettii. J Parasitol, 89:1256–1257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wormser GP, Dattwyler RJ, and Shapiro ED, et al. (2006) The clinical assessment, treatment and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic Anaplasmosis, and Babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis, 43:1089–1134, (www.idsociety.org).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene D. Shapiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsYale University School of MedicineNew Haven

Personalised recommendations