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Comparisons of State and Likelihood of Performing Chemosensory Event Behaviors in Two Populations of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana)

  • Bruce A. Schulte
  • Kathryn R. Bagley
  • Matthew Groover
  • Helen Loizi
  • Christen Merte
  • Jordana M. Meyer
  • Erek Napora
  • Lauren Stanley
  • Dhaval K. Vyas
  • Kimberly Wollett
  • Thomas E. Goodwin
  • L.E.L. Rasmussen

Abstract

The demonstration of a species-level chemical signal assumes that the same chemical signal serves a similar purpose across the range of the species. Yet, the response to putative chemical signals varies with social setting, environmental conditions, age, sex, and reproductive status of the individuals. Through observations and biological assays with African elephants (Loxodonta africana), we evaluated variation in state behaviors and the likelihood that elephants would perform specific chemosensory event behaviors at our study sites at Addo Elephant National Park South Africa and at Ndarakwai Ranch in Tanzania. We have noted similar time budgets in state behaviors. Post-pubescent (>9 y) elephants showed similar likelihoods in investigating their environment, including conspecific urine and feces. As we pursue the identity of an estrous pheromone, other chemical signals, and developmental patterns, studies with the two populations will be invaluable in assessing the generality of these findings to savanna African elephants.

Keywords

Chemical Signal Asian Elephant African Elephant Elephant Population Dodecenyl Acetate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media,LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce A. Schulte
    • 1
  • Kathryn R. Bagley
  • Matthew Groover
  • Helen Loizi
  • Christen Merte
  • Jordana M. Meyer
  • Erek Napora
  • Lauren Stanley
  • Dhaval K. Vyas
  • Kimberly Wollett
  • Thomas E. Goodwin
  • L.E.L. Rasmussen
  1. 1.Department of BiologyGeorgia Southern UniversityStatesboroUSA

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