Advertisement

The Wing-Sac Odour of Male Greater Sac-Winged Bats Saccopteryx bilineata (Emballonuridae) as a Composite Trait: Seasonal and Individual Differences

  • Barbara Caspers
  • Stephan Franke
  • Christian C. Voigt

Abstract

Male Saccopteryx bilineata possess a sac-like organ for the storage and display of odoriferous secretion in their front wing membrane. Since males use the scent in agonistic and courtship activities, and compose it from different secretions of distinct sources, like saliva, urine and gland secretion, we hypothesized that multiple information is encoded in the male scent-profile. We expected that the odour profile of males varies seasonally, giving information on male reproductive status. In addition, the odour profile ought to vary between individuals, thus providing the possibility for individual recognition. We repeatedly collected samples from wing-sac liquids of 20 male S. bilineata in five Costa Rican colonies during the mating and non-mating season. Samples were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to compare wing-sac contents. Wing-sac odours included various substances such as carboxylic acids, terpenoids and aromatic compounds. Male scent profiles varied (1) between seasons in the relative amount of tetradecanoic and octadecanoic acid, and (2) between individuals in the relative amount of two species-specific substances. These results suggest that the wing-sac liquid of male S. bilineata is indeed a composite trait and may be useful for the simultaneous transfer of multiple information.

Keywords

Mating Season Relative Peak Area Individual Recognition Odour Sample Spotted Hyena 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andersson, M. (1994) Sexual Selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  2. Albone, E.S. (1984) Mammalian Semiochemistry. John Wiley & Sons limited, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Badyaev, A.V., Hill, G.E., Dunn, P.O. and Glenn, J.C. (2001) Plumage color as a composite trait: Developmental and functional integration of sexual ornamentation. Amer. Nat. 158, 221–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basolo, A.L. and Trainor, B.C. (2002) The conformation of a female preference for a composite male trait in green swordtails. Anim. Behav. 63, 469–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bradbury, J.W. and Emmons, L. (1974) Social organisation of some Trinidad bats I. Emballonuridae. Z. Tierpsychol. 36, 137–183Google Scholar
  6. Bradbury, J.W and Vehrencamp, S.L. (1976) Social organization and foraging in emballonurid bats I. Field studies. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 1, 337–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buesching, C.D., Waterhouse, J.S. and Macdonald, D.W. (2002 a) Gas-chromatographic analysis of the subcaudal gland secretion of the european badger (meles meles) part I: chemical differences related to individual parameters. J. Chem. Ecol. 28, 41–56Google Scholar
  8. Buesching, C.D., Waterhouse, J.S. and Macdonald, D.W. (2002 b) Gas-chromatographic analysis of the subcaudal gland secretion of the european badger (meles meles) part II: time-related variation in the individual-specific composition. J. Chem. Ecol. 28, 57–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ebling, F.J. (1977) Hormonal control of mammalian skin glands. In Chemical Signals of Vertebrates, 1, 17–33Google Scholar
  10. Gosling, L.M. and Roberts, S.C. (2001) Scent-marking by male mammals: Cheat-proof signals to competitors and mates. Adv. Stud. Behav. 30, 169–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gorman, M.L. (1976) A mechanism for individual recognition by odour in Herpestes auropunctatus (carnivora: viverridae). Anim. Behav. 24, 141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grether, G.F., Kolluru, G.R. and Nersissian, K. (2004) Individual colour patches as multicomponent signals. Biological Review 79, 583–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Halpin, Z.T. (1980) Individual odors and individual recognition: Review and commentary. Biol. Behav. 5, 233–243Google Scholar
  14. Halpin, Z.T. (1986) Individual odors among mammals: Origins and functions. Adv. Stud. Behav. 16, 39–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hayes, R.A., Richardson, B.J., Claus, S.C. and Wyllie, S.G. (2002) Semiochemicals and social signalling in the wild European rabbit in Australia: II. Variations in chemical composition of chin gland secretion across sampling sites. J. Chem. Ecol. 28, 2613–2625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heckel, G., Voigt, C.C., Mayer, F. and von Helversen, O. (1999) Extra-harem paternity in the white-lined bat Saccopteryx bilineata. Behaviour 136, 1173–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hofer, H., East, M., Sämmang, I. and Dehnhard, M. (2001) Analysis of volatile compounds in scent-marks of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and their possible function in olfactory communication. In: A.Marchlewska-Koj, D. Muller-Schwarze and J. Lepri (Eds.), Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 9. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 141–148.Google Scholar
  18. Hosken, D.J., Blackberry, M.A. Stewart, T.G. and Stucki, A.F. (1998) The male reproductive cycle of three species of Australien vespertilionid bats. J. Zool. Lond. 245, 261–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnston, R.E., Derzie, A., Chiang, G., Jernigan, P. and Lee, H.-C. (1993) Individual scent signatures in golden hamsters: evidence for specialization of function. Anim. Behav. 45, 1061–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kavaliers, M., Colwell, D.D., Braun, W.J. and Choleris, E. (2003) Brief exposure to the odour of a parasitized male alters the subsequent mate odour responses of female mice. Anim. Behav. 65, 59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marler, P. (1961) The logical analysis of animal communication. J.Theor. Biol. 1, 295–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Penn, D. and Potts, W.K. (1998) Chemical signals and parasite-mediated sexual selection. Trends Ecol. Evolut. 13, 391–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Robson, T.E., Goldizen, A.W. and Green, D.J. (2005) The multiple signals assessed by female satin bowerbirds: could they be used to narrow down females’ choices of mates? Biol. Lett. 1, 264–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Runkle, L.S., Wells, K.D., Robb, C.C and Lance, S.L. (1994) Individual, nightly, and seasonal variation in calling behavior of the gray tree frog, Hyla versicolor: implications for energy expenditure. Behav. Ecol. 5, 318–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Safi, K. and Kerth, G. (2003) Secretions of the interaural gland contain information about individuality and colony membership in the Bechstein’s bat. Anim. Behav. 65, 363–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Scully, W.M.R., Fenton, M.B. and Saleuddin, A.S.M. (2000) A histological examination of the holding sacs and glandular scent organs of some bat species (Emballonuridae, Hipposideridae, Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae). Can. J. Zool. 78, 613–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Starck, D. (1958) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Armtaschen und anderer Hautdrüsenorgane von Saccopteryx bilineata Temminck 1838 (Chiroptera, Emballonuridae). Gegenbaur morphologisches Jahrbuch 99, 3–25Google Scholar
  28. Tannenbaum, R. (1975) Reproductive strategies in the white-lined bat. PhD Thesis, Cornell UniversityGoogle Scholar
  29. Voigt, C.C. (2002) Individual variation of perfume blending in male sac-winged bats. Anim. Behav. 63, 31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Voigt, C.C. (2005) The evolution of perfume blending and wing sacs in emballonurid bats. In: R.T. Mason, M.P. LeMaster, D. Müller-Schwarze (Eds.),Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 10. Springer Press, New York, pp. 93–100Google Scholar
  31. Voigt, C.C. and von Helversen, O. (1999) Storage and display of odor in male Saccopteryx bilineata Emballonuridea. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 47, 29–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Voigt, C.C., von Helversen, O., Michener, R and Kunz, T.H. (2001) The economics of harem maintenance in the sac-winged bat, Saccopteryx bilineata (Emballonuridae). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 50, 31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Voigt, C.C., Caspers, B. and Speck, S. (2005) Bats, bacteria, and bat smell: Sex-specific diversity of microbes in a sexually selected scent organ. J. Mammal. 86, 745–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Voigt, C.C. and Schwarzenberger, F. (unpublished manuscript) Female reproductive endocrinology of a small tropical bat (Saccopteryx bilineata; Emballonuridae) monitored by fecal hormone metabolites.Google Scholar
  35. Zala, S.M., Potts, W.K. and Penn, D.J. (2004) Scent-marking displays provide honest signals of health and infection. Behav. Ecol. 15,338–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media,LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara Caspers
    • 1
  • Stephan Franke
  • Christian C. Voigt
  1. 1.Leibniz Institute for Zoo andWildlife ResearchD-10252 BerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations