MHC-Associated Chemosignals and Individual Identity
The ability of animals to recognise and discriminate individual conspecifics is a vital feature of mammalian social systems. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have long been recognised to play an important role in influencing chemosensory cues of individual identity. In particular, the profile of urinary volatiles of mice has been related to MHC type, although a mechanism to explain this link has remained obscure. This article aims to review recent developments, which have revealed a new class of MHC-associated chemosignals. These are nine-amino acid peptide ligands bound by MHC class I molecules, which are presented at the cell surface for immune surveillance. In addition to this immune function, these peptides have been found to elicit highly sensitive and specific responses in sensory neurons of both the main olfactory and vomeronasal systems. They have also been shown to convey information about strain identity in biologically relevant contexts. Hence it now appears that there are multiple systems for signalling MHC identity, with distinct features that are likely to be adapted for use in different behavioural contexts.
KeywordsMajor Histocompatibility Complex Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Major Histocompatibility Complex Allele Vomeronasal Organ Anchor Residue
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