The Behavioral Ecology of our Earliest Hominid Ancestors

  • R. W. Sussman
  • Donna Hart
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)


Behavioral Ecology Fossil Evidence Early Hominid Hominid Evolution Edge Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alemseged, Z. (2003). An integrated approach to taphonomy and faunal change in the Shungura Formation (Ethiopia) and its implication for hominid evolution. J. Hum. Evol. 44:451–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archer, J. (1988). The Behavioral Biology of Aggression. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Binford, L. (1992). Subsistence – a key to the past. In: Jones, S., Martin, R., and Pilbeam, D. (eds.), Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 365–368.Google Scholar
  4. Boesch, C., and Boesch-Acherman, H. (2000). The Chimpanzees of the Taï Forest. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  5. Bonnefille, R. (1976). Palynological evidence for an important change in the vegetation of the Omo Basin between 2.5 and 2 milion years. In Copens, Y., Howell, F., Isaac, G., and Leakey, R. (eds.), Earliest man and environments in the Lake Rudolf Basin. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 421–431.Google Scholar
  6. Brain, C. K. (1981). The Hunters or the Hunted? University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  7. Brody, J. (1990). Diet study indicts fat and meat. New York Times 5/8/1990:C2.Google Scholar
  8. Campbell, T. C., and Campbell II, T. M. (2005) The China Study. BenBella Books, Dallas.Google Scholar
  9. Cartmill, M. (1993). A View to a Death in the Morning: Hunting and Nature through History. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  10. Cartmill, M. (1997). Hunting hypothesis of human origins. In Spencer, F. (ed.), History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing, New York, pp. 508–512.Google Scholar
  11. Cerling, T. (1992). Development of grasslands and savannas in East Africa during the Neogene. Paleogeogr. Paleocl. 97:241–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Charles-Dominique, P. (1977). Ecology and Behaviour of Nocturnal Primates. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Chivers, D. J., and Hladik, C. M. (1980). Morphology of the gastrointestinal tract in primates: comparisons with other mammals in relation to diet. J. Morphol. 166:337–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chivers, D. J., and Hladik, C. M. (1984). Diet and gut morphology in primates. In: Chivers, D. J., Wood, B. A., and Bilsborough, A. (eds.), Food Acquisition and Processing in Primates. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 213–230.Google Scholar
  15. Conroy, G. (2005). Reconstructing Human Origins: A Modern Synthesis. Second Edition. W. W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Crockett, C. M., and Wilson, W. I. (1980). The ecological separation of Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fuscicularis in Sumatra. In: Lindburg, D. G. (ed.), The macaques: studies in ecology, behavior, and evolution. Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, pp. 148–181.Google Scholar
  17. Dart, R. (1926). Taungs and its significance. Nat. Hist. 3:315–327.Google Scholar
  18. Dart, R., and Craig, D. (1959). Adventures with the Missing Link. Harper, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Delson, E. (1980). Fossil macaques, phyletic relationships and a scenario of deployment. In: Lindburg, D. G. (ed.), The macaques: studies in ecology, behavior, and evolution. Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, pp. 10–30.Google Scholar
  20. Dennell, R. (1997). The world’s oldest spears. Nature 385:787–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fleagle, J. (1999). Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Second Edition. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Fox, R. (1967). In the beginning: aspects of hominid behavioural evolution. Man 2:415–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fry, D. (2006). The Human Potential for Peace: An Anthropological Challege to Assumptoins about War and Violence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  24. Garber, P. A. (1987). Foraging strategies among living primates. Ann. Rev. Anthropol. 16:339–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gentry, A. (1976). Bovidae of the Omo Group deposits. In: Coppens, Y., Howell, F., Isaac, G., and Leakey, R. (eds.), Earliest man and environments in the Lake Rudolf Basin. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 293–301.Google Scholar
  26. Ghiglieri, M. (1999). The Dark Side of Man: Tracing the Origins of Male Violence. Perseus Books, Reading, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  27. Goren-Inbar, N., Alperson, N., Kislev, M., Simchoni, O., Melamed, Y., Ben-Nun A., and Werker, E. (2004). Evidence of hominin control of fire at Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, Israel. Science 304:725–727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hart, D. (2000). Primates as prey: ecological, morphological, and behavioral relationships between primate species and their predators. Ph.D. Thesis, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.Google Scholar
  29. Hart, D., and Sussman, R. W. (2005). Man the Hunted: Primates, Predators, and Human Evolution. Westview Press, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Hill, A., and Ward, S. (1988). Origin of the Hominidae: the record of African large hominoid evolution between 14 my and 4 my. Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol 31:49–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huxley, T. H. [(1893) 1993]. Evolution and ethics. In: Nitecki M. H., and Nitecki D. V. (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. State University of New York Press, Albany. pp. 29–80.Google Scholar
  32. Jamieson, R. W. (1998). The effects of seasonal variation in fruit availability on social and foraging behavior in Macaca fascicularis in Mauritius. Ph.D. Thesis, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.Google Scholar
  33. Kawai, M. (1958). On the system of social ranks in a natural group of Japanese monkeys. Primates 1:11–48.Google Scholar
  34. Kay, R. F. (1984). The use of anatomical features to infer foraging behavior in extinct primates. In: Rodman, P. S., and Cant, J. G. (eds.), Adaptations for Foraging in Nonhuman Primates. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 21–53.Google Scholar
  35. Kelly, R. C. (2000). Warless Societies and the Origin of War. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
  36. Klein, L. F. (2004). Women and Men in World Cultures. McGraw Hill, Boston.Google Scholar
  37. Klein, R. G. (1987). Problems and prospects in understanding how early people exploited animals. In: Nitecki, M. H., and Nitecki, D. V. (eds.), The Evolution of Human Hunting. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 11–45.Google Scholar
  38. Klein, R. G. (1999) The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins, Second Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  39. Kurland, J. A. (1973). A natural history of Kra macaques (Macaca fascicularis Raffles, 1821) at the Kutai Reserve, Kalimantan, Timur, Indonesia. Primates 14:245–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. MacKinnon, J. R., and MacKinnon, K. S. (1980). Niche differentiation in a primate community. In: Chivers, D. J. (ed.), Malayan forest primates. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 167–190.Google Scholar
  41. Marks, J. (2002). What It Means to Be 98% Chimpanzee: Apes, People, and Their Genes. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  42. Marlowe, F. W. (2005). Hunter-gatherers and human evolution. Evol. Anthropol. 14:54–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Martin, R. D. (1990). Primate Origins and Evolution: A Phylogenetic Reconstruction. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  44. Martin, R. D., Chivers, D. J., MacLarnon, A. M., and Hladik, C. M. (1985). Gastrointestinal allometry in primates and other mammals. In: Jungers, W. L. (ed.), Size and Scaling in Primate Biology. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 61–90.Google Scholar
  45. Pope, S. J. (2004). Primate sociality and natural law theory. In: Sussman, R. W and Chapman, A. R. (eds.), The Origins and Nature of Sociality. Aldine de Gruyter, New York, pp. 313–331.Google Scholar
  46. Potts, R. (1996). Evolution and climate variability. Science 273:922–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Reed, K., and Eck, G. (1997). Paleoecology of the Plio-Pleistocene Hadar hominid localities. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. Suppl. 24:194.Google Scholar
  48. Richard, A. R., Goldstein, S. J., and Dewar, R. E. (1989). Weed macaques: the evolutionary implications of macaque feeding ecology. Int. J. Primatol. 10:569–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rijksen, H. (1978). A Field Study on Sumatran Orangutans, (Pongo pygmaeus abelii): Ecology, Behaviour and Conservation. Veenman and Zonen, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  50. Rodman, P. S. (1981). Structural differentiation of microhabitats of sympatric Macaca fuscicularis and Macaca nemestrina in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Int. J. Primatol. 12:357–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sanz, C. (2004). Behavioral ecology of chimpanzees in a central African forest: Pan troglodytes troglodytes in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. Ph.D. Thesis, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.Google Scholar
  52. Semaw, S. (2000). The world’s oldest stone artifacts from Gona, Ethiopia: Their implication for understanding stone technology and pattern of human evolution between 2.6-1.5 million years ago. J. Archaeol. Science 27:1197–1214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shaffer, C. A., and Sussman, R. W. (2005). Activity budget and feeding ecology of Macaca fascicularis in Mauritius. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Suppl. 40:188.Google Scholar
  54. Simons, E. L. (2000). A view on the science: Physical anthropology at the millennium. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 112:441–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Southwick, C. H., and Cadigan, F. C. (1972). Population of Malaysian primates. Primates 13:1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stanford, C. (1999). The Hunting Ape: Meat Eating and the Origins of Human Behavior. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  57. Stern, J. T., Jr. (2000). Climbing to the top: A personal memoir of Australopithecus afarensis. Evol. Anthropol. 9:113–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Susman R. L., Stern, J. T. Jr., and Jungers, W. L. (1984). Arboreality and bipedality in the Hadar hominids. Folia Primatol. 43:113–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sussman, R. W. (1999a). The myth of man the hunter, man the killer, and the evolution of human morality. Zygon 34:453–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sussman, R. W. (1999b). Species-specific dietary patterns in primates and human dietary adaptations. In: Sussman, R. W. (ed.), The Biological Basis of Human Behavior. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, pp. 143–157.Google Scholar
  61. Sussman, R. W. (2000). Piltdown man: the father of American field primatology. In: Strum, S., and Fedigan, L. (eds.), Primate Encounters: Models of Science, Gender, and Society. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 85–103.Google Scholar
  62. Sussman, R. W. (2004). Are humans inherently violent? In: Selig, R., London, M., and Kaupp P. (eds.), Anthropology Explored: Revised and Expanded. Smithsonian Books, Washington, D. C., pp. 30–45.Google Scholar
  63. Sussman, R., and Tattersall, I. (1981). Behavior and ecology of Macaca fascicularis in Mauritius: a preliminary study. Primates 22(2):192–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sussman, R.W., and Tattersall, I. (1986). Distribution, abundance, and putative ecological strategy of Macaca fascicularis on the island of Mauritius, southwestern Indian Ocean. Folia Primatol. 46:28–43.Google Scholar
  65. Tanaka, J. (1980). The San Hunters-Gatherers of the Kalahari, A Study in Ecological Anthropology. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  66. Tanner, N., and Zihlman, A. (1976). Women in evolution: innovation and selection in human origins. Signs 1:585–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tattersall, I. (2003). Stand and deliver: why did early hominids begin to walk on two feet? Nat. Hist. 112:60–64.Google Scholar
  68. Teaford, M., and Ungar, P. (2000). Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97(25):13506–13511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Theime, H. (1997). Lower Paleolithic hunting spears from Germany. Nature 385:807–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ungar, P. (2004). Dental topography and diets of Australopithecus afarensis and early Homo. J. Hum. Evol. 46:605–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Washburn, S., and. Lancaster, C. (1968). The evolution of hunting. In: Lee, R., and DeVore, I. (eds.), Man the Hunter. Aldine, Chicago, pp. 293–303.Google Scholar
  72. Wheatley, B. P. (1980). Feeding and ranging of east Bornean Macaca fascicularis. In: Lindberg, D. G. (ed.), The macaques: Studies in ecology, behavior and evolution. Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, pp. 215–246.Google Scholar
  73. White, T. D., Suwa, G., and Asfaw, B. (1994). Australopithecus ramidus. a new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature 375:88.Google Scholar
  74. Willett, W., Stampfer, M., Colditz, G., Rosner, B. A., and Speizer, F. E. (1990). Relation of meat, fat, and fiber intake to the risk of colon cancer in a prospective study among women. New Eng. J. Med. 323:1664–1672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wilson, E. O. (1975). Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  76. Wilson, M. L., and Wrangham, R. W. (2003). Intergroup relations in chimpanzees. Ann. Rev. Anthropol. 32:363–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. WoldeGabriel G., White T. D., Suwa, G., Renne, P., de Heinzelin, J., Hart, W. K., and Helken, G. (1994). Ecological and temporal placement of early Pliocene hominids at Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature 371:330–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wolpoff, M. (1998). Paleoanthropology. Second Edition. McGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  79. Worthman, C. M., and Konner, J. (1987). Testosterone levels change with subsistence hunting effort in !Kung San men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. Vol. 12:449–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wrangham, R. (1995). Ape culture and missing links. Symbols (Spring):2–9, 20.Google Scholar
  81. Wrangham, R., and Peterson, D. (1996). Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  82. Yaeger, C. P. (1996). Feeding ecology of the long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan, Tengah, Indonesia. Int. J. Primatol. 17:51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zihlman, A. (1997). The Paleolithic glass ceiling: Women in human evolution. In: Hager, L. (ed.), Women in Human Evolution. Routledge, London, pp. 91–113.Google Scholar
  84. Zihlman, A. (2000). The Human Evolution Coloring Book. Second Edition. Harper Collins, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. W. Sussman
    • 1
  • Donna Hart
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyWashington UniversitySt. Louis

Personalised recommendations