This chapter introduces the application of image-guided intervention to the internal organs of the thorax and abdomen. In the strict sense, image-guided therapy is any therapy that uses fluoroscopy, ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging to assist the physician in placing an instrument to a desired target in the body. In this chapter, the concept of image-guided surgery and intervention applies to more recent concepts that rely on computer-assisted guidance. This new paradigm still uses the conventional imaging modalities listed above, but also adds a tracking system and probe position sensors to couple the images with the anatomic space of interest. Therefore, the concepts of visualization, threedimensional (3D) image reconstruction, segmentation, and registration discussed in earlier chapters are intimately tied to the procedures performed with these systems. Some of the challenges with visualization and registration related to patient motion and respiration become particularly apparent when working in the thoracoabdominal regions of the body. This chapter surveys the work performed in animal tests and early human trials, but omits most of the benchtop testing in phantoms. It is therefore a brief review of clinical applications that have been investigated using these emerging guidance systems.
KeywordsLaparoscopic Ultrasound Target Registration Error Electromagnetic Tracking Laser Range Scanner Electromagnetic Navigation
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