• Burton P. Drayer

Presenting Signs and Symptoms

Sustained state of unconsciousness, defined by the neurological examination primarily in terms of lack of response to external stimuli

Common Causes

  • Diffuse hypoxic brain injury

  • Disease of organs other than the brain
    • Liver (hepatic encephalopathy)

    • Kidney (uremic encephalopathy)

    • Lung (hypoxia, carbon dioxide narcosis)

    • Pancreas (diabetes, hypoglycemia)

  • Exogenous poisons (sedatives, narcotics, psychotropic drugs, anticonvulsants, heavy metals)

  • Acid-base abnormalities affecting the central nervous system

  • Disordered temperature regulation (hypothermia, heat stroke)

  • Inflammatory or infiltrative disorders (encephalitis, cerebral vasculitis)

  • Seizure and post-ictal states


Magnetic Resonance Angiography Diagnostic Image Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Optic Neuritis Arteriovenous Malformation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burton P. Drayer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyThe Mount Sinai Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

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