• Burton P. Drayer

Presenting Signs and Symptoms

Sustained state of unconsciousness, defined by the neurological examination primarily in terms of lack of response to external stimuli

Common Causes

  • Diffuse hypoxic brain injury

  • Disease of organs other than the brain
    • Liver (hepatic encephalopathy)

    • Kidney (uremic encephalopathy)

    • Lung (hypoxia, carbon dioxide narcosis)

    • Pancreas (diabetes, hypoglycemia)

  • Exogenous poisons (sedatives, narcotics, psychotropic drugs, anticonvulsants, heavy metals)

  • Acid-base abnormalities affecting the central nervous system

  • Disordered temperature regulation (hypothermia, heat stroke)

  • Inflammatory or infiltrative disorders (encephalitis, cerebral vasculitis)

  • Seizure and post-ictal states


Magnetic Resonance Angiography Diagnostic Image Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Optic Neuritis Arteriovenous Malformation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burton P. Drayer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyThe Mount Sinai Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations