• Jeffrey S. Klein

Common Causes

  • Chronic obstruction pulmonary disease (exacerbation)

  • Lower respiratory tract infection (pneumonia)

  • Central nervous system depression (head trauma or injudicious use of sedatives, narcotics, tranquilizers, or oxygen

  • Cardiovascular disorders (myocardial infarction, heart failure, pulmonary emboli)

  • Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ARDS)

  • Airway irritants (smoke or fumes)

  • Acute asthma attack Endocrine and metabolic disorders (myxedema, metabolic alkalosis)

  • Thoracic abnormalities (chest trauma, pneumothorax, thoracic or abdominal surgery)


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Mediastinal Mass Bronchogenic Carcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey S. Klein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Vermont College of MedicineBurlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations