• Jeffrey S. Klein

Common Causes

  • Chronic obstruction pulmonary disease (exacerbation)

  • Lower respiratory tract infection (pneumonia)

  • Central nervous system depression (head trauma or injudicious use of sedatives, narcotics, tranquilizers, or oxygen

  • Cardiovascular disorders (myocardial infarction, heart failure, pulmonary emboli)

  • Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ARDS)

  • Airway irritants (smoke or fumes)

  • Acute asthma attack Endocrine and metabolic disorders (myxedema, metabolic alkalosis)

  • Thoracic abnormalities (chest trauma, pneumothorax, thoracic or abdominal surgery)


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Mediastinal Mass Bronchogenic Carcinoma 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey S. Klein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Vermont College of MedicineBurlingtonUSA

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