Cops and Spooks: The Role of Police in Counterterrorism
This chapter examines the role of full-service or general-duties policing in combating terrorism. In particular we are concerned with whether the counterterrorism activities of covert intelligence gathering and disruption are playing a larger role in the activities of police agencies today, and if so to what extent such a role is impacting the services that police are expected to provide in Western democracies. We begin with a comparison of national structures for conducting counterterrorism in Western democracies. Then, we explore the impact of counterterrorism post 9/11 on policing and specify specific factors that affect the strength of its impact. Finally, drawing heavily on information from the United States and Israel, the chapter discusses arguments for and against the involvement of police in covert terrorism prevention. Overall, we conclude that general duties police agencies should be cautious in adopting a strong counterterrorism function.
KeywordsPolice Force Local Police Homeland Security Police Agency Terrorist Threat
We would like to thank Tal Jonathan, Gali Aviv, Rochelle Schnurr, and Kristen Miggans for their assistance in the preparation of this manuscript. We owe a special debt to Tal Jonathan and Simon Perry for their comments and suggestions regarding high-policing strategies.
- D.H. Bayley. 1985. Patterns of Policing. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
- D.H. Bayley. 2006. Changing the Guard: Developing Democratic Police Abroad. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- J.M. Bradley and R.L. Lyman. 2006. The public safety model: A homeland security alternative. The Police Chief 73(3):24–27.Google Scholar
- A.A. Braga and W. David. 2006. Problem-oriented policing: The disconnect between principles and practice. In: D. Weisburd and A.A. Braga (eds) Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- J-P. Brodeur. 2003. Democracy and secrecy: The French intelligence community. In: J-P. Brodeur, P. Gill, and D. Tollborg (eds) Democracy, Law and Society. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- R. Clutterbuck. 1994. Terrorism in an Unstable World. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- T.A. Critchley. 1967. A History of Police in England and Wales, 1900–1966. London: Constable.Google Scholar
- H.J. Davies and M.R. Plotkin. 2005. Partnership to Promote Home Security. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Police Service and Police Executive Research Forum.Google Scholar
- L.M. Davis, J.K. Riley, G. Ridgeway, J. Pace, S.K. Cotton, P.S. Steinberg, K. Damphousse, and B.L. Smith. 2004. When Terrorism Hits Home: How Prepared are State and Local Law Enforcement? Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
- G. Fishman (ed). 2005. Balanced Police Action Between Terror and Maintaining Public Order: A Summary of an Era and Challenges for Coming Years. Jerusalem, Israel: The Israel Democracy Institute [In Hebrew].Google Scholar
- B. Ganor. 2002. Israel’s counter-terrorism policy: Efficacy versus liberal-democratic values 1983–1999. PhD dissertation, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem [In Hebrew].Google Scholar
- Great Britain Home Office. 2006. Counter-Terrorism Policy and Human Rights: Prosecution and Pre-Charge Detention, the Government Reply to the Twenty-Fourth Report from the Joint Committee on Human Rights. London: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
- M. Halperin, J. Berman, R. Borosage, and M. Christine. 1976. The Lawless State: The Crimes of the U.S. Intelligence Agencies. New York, NY: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- A. Hare’l. 2006. The theft of 48 weapons from an IDF base was solved. Walla News, 2 April. http://news.walla.co.il (accessed December 2007). [In Hebrew].
- G. Hart and W.B. Rudman. 2002. America Still Unprepared – America Still in Danger. New York, NY: Council on Foreign Relations.Google Scholar
- S. Herzog. 2003. Border closures as a reliable method for the measurement of Palestinian involvement in crime in Israel: A quasi-experimental analysis. International Journal of Comparative Criminology 3(1):18–41.Google Scholar
- M.J. Hickman and B.A. Reaves. 2002. Local police and homeland security: Some baseline data. Police Chief 69:83–85, 88.Google Scholar
- History of Police Intelligence Operations, 1880–1975. 1976. Gaitherburg, MD: International Association of Chiefs of Police.Google Scholar
- P. Howard. 2004. Hard Won Lessons: How Police Fight Terrorism in the United Kingdom. New York, NY: Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. http://www.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/scr_01.pdf (accessed December 2007).
- A.M. Howitt and R.L. Pangi. (eds). 2003. Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- D.E. Kaplan. 2006. The spy next door. U.S. News and World Report, 8 May, pp. 41–49.Google Scholar
- G. Kelling. 2004. Introduction: Do police matter? In: P. Howard (ed) Hard Won Lessons: How Police Fight Terrorism in the United Kingdom. New York: Manhattan Institute. http://www.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/scr_01.pdf (accessed December 2007).
- G.L. Kelling and W.J. Bratton. 2006. Policing Terrorism. New York: Manhattan Institute. http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cb_43.htm (accessed December 2007).
- G.L. Kelling and M.H. Moore. 1989. From political to reform to community: The evolving strategy of police. In: J.R. Greene and S.D. Mastrofski (eds) Community Policing: Real or Rhetoric. New York, NY: Praeger.Google Scholar
- R.G. Kerlikowske. 2006. Safe at Home? Policing the Hometown in the Era of Homeland Security, November 28, 2006: The Patrick V. Murphy Lecture Series on Perspectives on Police Leadership. New York: John Jay College of Criminal Justice.Google Scholar
- S.A. Loyka, D.A. Faggiani, and C. Karchmer. 2005. Protecting Your Community from Terrorism: Strategies for Local Law Enforcement. Volume 4 – The Production and Sharing of Intelligence. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Police Service and the Police Executive Research Forum.Google Scholar
- W. Lyons. 2002. Partnerships, information and public safety: Community policing in a time of terror. Policing 25(3):530–542.Google Scholar
- E.R. Maguire and W.R. King. 2006. Federal-Local Law Coordination in Homeland Security. In: B. Forst, J. Greene, and J. Lynch (eds.) Security and Justice in the Homeland: Criminologists on Terrorism. (Forthcoming 2010).Google Scholar
- M.H. Moore, D. Thatcher, F.X. Hartmann, and C. Catherine. 1999. Case Studies of the Transformation of Police Departments: A Cross-Site Analysis. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
- M.E. O’Hanlon. 2005. The Role of State and Local Governments in Homeland Security. Washington, DC: US Senate and Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
- A.L. Pastore and K. Maguire. 2003. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
- Post 9–11 Policing: The Crime-Control-Homeland Security Paradigm – Taking Command of New Realities. 2005. Alexandria, VA: International Association of Chiefs of Police. http://www.theiacp.org/pubinfo/finalpost911policing.pdf (accessed December 2007).
- D. Ranodi. 2006. At the last minute: A terror attack was prevented in Jerusalem. MSN News, 17 July. www.business.msn.co.il/news (accessed December 2007). [In Hebrew].
- D.M. Rees. 2006. Special focus: Post-September 11 policing in suburban America. Police Chief 73(2):72–77.Google Scholar
- D. Richman. 2004–2005. The right fight: Enlisted by the feds, can police find sleeper cells and protect civil rights, too? Boston Review 29.Google Scholar
- K.J. Riley, G.F. Treverton, J.M. Wilson, and L.M. Davis. 2005. State and Local Intelligence in the War on Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.Google Scholar
- S. Rofe’-Ofir. 2007. Suspicion: A soldier stole weapons and sold them to Palestinians. Yediot Aharonot, 7 March. www.ynet.co.il (accessed December 2007). [In Hebrew].
- J.W. Runge. 2003. Traffic law enforcement and homeland security. In: R.L. Kemp (ed) Homeland Security: Best Practices for Local Government. Washington, DC: International City/County Management Association.Google Scholar
- O. Shikler. 2007. A terrorist group that attempted kidnapping was arrested. News First Class, 12 March. www.nfc.co.il (accessed December 2007). [In Hebrew].
- M. Sidel. 2004. More Secure, Less Free. US: The University of Michigan.Google Scholar
- J.H. Skolnick. 2005. Democratic policing confronts terror and protest. Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce 33:191–212.Google Scholar
- Y. Stein. 2001. Torture of Palestinian Minors in the Gush-Etzion Police Station. Israel: B’Tselem. http://www.btselem.org/Download/200107_Torture_of_Minors_Eng.rtf (accessed December, 2007).
- The Role of ‘Home’ in Homeland Security: The Federalism Challenge. 2003. Albany, NY: Rockefeller Institute of Government.Google Scholar
- J. Travis. 1999. Inventory of State and Local Law Enforcement Technology Needs to Combat Terrorism. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
- UK Human Rights: A Broken Promise. 2006. Amnesty International. http://web.amnesty.org/library/pdf/EUR450042006ENGLISH/$File/EUR4500406.pdf (accessed December, 2007).
- G. Wardlaw. 1982. Political Terrorism: Theory, Tactics, and Counter-Measures. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- D. Weisburd and J. McElroy. 1988. Enacting the CPO role: Findings from the New York City pilot program in community policing. In: J.R. Greene and S.D. Mastrofski (eds) Community Based Policing: Rhetoric or Reality. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
- D. Weisburd, T. Jonathan, and S. Perry. Forthcoming. The Israeli model for policing terrorism: Goals, strategies and open questions. Criminal Justice and Behavior.Google Scholar
- P. Wilkinson. 2001. Terrorism versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response. UK: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
- J.Q. Wilson. 1978. The Investigators: Managing FBI and Narcotics Agents. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- T. Yamin-Volbowitz. 2007. Suspicion: Israeli companies assisted in funding terror organizations. Maa’riv, 25 February. www.nrg.co.il (accessed December 2007). [In Hebrew].
- N. Yashuvi. (ed). 1990. Violence against Minors in Police Detention. Israel: B’Tselem. http://www.btselem.org/Download/199006_07_Violence_against_Minors_Eng.doc (accessed December 2007).