A Peptide Vaccine Based on Retro-Inverso β-Amyloid Sequences Fails to Elicit a Cross-reactive Immune response
Retro-inverso peptides as vaccines. In a retro-inverso (RI) peptide, the direction of the amino acid sequence is reversed, and the chirality of each amino acid residue is inverted, resulting in inversion of each peptide bond within the peptide sequence .
Several studies have documented that the RI analogs of linear peptide epitopes can be useful as vaccines, the most convincing example being the retro-inverso analog of the immunodominant epitope of Foot-and-Mouth disease virus . In general, the likelihood of a RI peptide successfully mimicking a given epitope depends on how much the epitope is defined by the overall topology of the side-chains, rather than by interactions involving the peptide backbone, and successful mimicry is more often observed for epitopes in random coil, loop, or cyclic conformations, rather than in specific secondary structures. Conversely, the available studies indicate a low likelihood of a RI peptide eliciting a T-cell response...
KeywordsAntibody Response Peptide Backbone Immunodominant Epitope Chain Topology Specific Secondary Structure
The authors thankfully acknowledge the intellectual contributions to this work of G. Ciliberto, R. Cortese, G. Seabrook, and J. Shiver.