Optimization of the bioconvertion of the Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme inhibitors IPP and VPP

  • Jos Schalk
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (volume 611)


Hypertension is considered to be one of the main risk factors for Cardio Vascular Diseases (CVD). One of the mechanisms that regulate blood pressure is the renin-angiotensin system. This is a cascade of reactions leading to the formation of angiotensin II, which has a strong vasoconstrictive effect and hence a blood pressure-increasing effect. Inhibition of one of the key enzymes in this cascade, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE), reduces formation of angiotensin II and thus has a blood pressure lowering effect. Since the discoveries of the first ACE inhibiting peptides, isolated from venom of the Bothrops jararaca, research has focussed on the identification of natural occurring peptides that can ameliorate hypertension. Especially milk appears to be a good source for a wide range of ACE inhibiting peptides. For instance, the in vitro ACE inhibiting effect of Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) and Val-Pro-Pro (VPP), has been demonstrated. Lactobacillus helveticusstrains grown in...


Bioactive Peptide Fermented Milk Aspergillus Oryzae Enzyme Mixture Blood Pressure Lowering Effect 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jos Schalk
    • 1
  1. 1.Olivier van Noortlaan, 120Unilever Food and Health Research InstituteVlaardingenThe Netherlands

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