Advertisement

Differential Diagnosis of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

  • Thierry Lamireau

Keywords

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Celiac Disease Food Allergy Clostridium Difficile Chronic Granulomatous Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Schumacher G, Sandstedt B, Kollberg B. A prospective study of first attacks of inflammatory bowel disease and infectious colitis. Clinical findings and early diagnosis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1994;29(3):265–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rutgeerts P, Peeters M, Geboes K, Vantrappen G. Infectious agents in inflammatory bowel disease. Endoscopy. 1992;24(6):565–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Surawicz CM, Belic L. Rectal biopsy helps to distinguish acute self-limited colitis from idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 1984;86(1):104–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nostrant TT, Kumar NB, Appelman HD. Histopathology differentiates acute self-limited colitis from ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 1987;92(2):318–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Notteghem B, Salomez JL, Gower-Rousseau C, Marti R, Lemahieu M, Nuttens MC, et al. [What is the prognosis in unclassified colitis? Results of a cohort study of 104 patients in the Northern-Pas-de-Calais region]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1993;17(11):811–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goldman H, Proujansky R. Allergic proctitis and gastroenteritis in children. Clinical and mucosal biopsy features in 53 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1986;10(2):75–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hill SM, Milla PJ. Colitis caused by food allergy in infants. Arch Dis Child. 1990;65(1):132–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jenkins HR, Pincott JR, Soothill JF, Milla PJ, Harries JT. Food allergy: the major cause of infantile colitis. Arch Dis Child. 1984;59(4):326–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Odze RD, Bines J, Leichtner AM, Goldman H, Antonioli DA. Allergic proctocolitis in infants: a prospective clinicopathologic biopsy study. Hum Pathol. 1993;24(6):668–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rosekrans PC, Meijer CJ, van der Wal AM, Lindeman J. Allergic proctitis, a clinical and immunopathological entity. Gut. 1980;21(12):1017–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Powell GK. Milk- and soy-induced enterocolitis of infancy. Clinical features and standardization of challenge. J Pediatr. 1978;93(4):553–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fonkalsrud EW, Ament ME, Fleisher D. Management of the appendix in young patients with Crohn disease. Arch Surg. 1982;117(1):11–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yang SS, Gibson P, McCaughey RS, Arcari FA, Bernstein J. Primary Crohn disease of the appendix: report of 14 cases and review of the literature. Ann Surg. 1979;189(3):334–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Apley J. The child with recurrent abdominal pain. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1967;14(1):63–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tedesco FJ, Hardin RD, Harper RN, Edwards BH. Infectious colitis endoscopically simulating inflammatory bowel disease: a prospective evaluation. Gastrointest Endosc. 1983;29(3):195–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marks MI, Pai CH, Lafleur L, Lackman L, Hammerberg O. Yersinia enterocolitica gastroenteritis: a prospective study of clinical, bacteriologic, and epidemiologic features. J Pediatr. 1980;96(1):26–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vantrappen G, Ponette E, Geboes K, Bertrand P. Yersinia enteritis and enterocolitis: gastroenterological aspects. Gastroenterology. 1977;72(2):220–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Abdel-Haq NM, Asmar BI, Abuhammour WM, Brown WJ. Yersinia enterocolitica infection in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19(10):954–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Blaser MJ, Miller RA, Lacher J, Singleton JW. Patients with active Crohn disease have elevated serum antibodies to antigens of seven enteric bacterial pathogens. Gastroenterology. 1984;87(4):888–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bhan MK, Raj P, Levine MM, Kaper JB, Bhandari N, Srivastava R, et al. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli associated with persistent diarrhea in a cohort of rural children in India. J Infect Dis. 1989;159(6):1061–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fang GD, Lima AA, Martins CV, Nataro JP, Guerrant RL. Etiology and epidemiology of persistent diarrhea in northeastern Brazil: a hospital-based, prospective, case-control study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995;21(2):137–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gryboski JD. Clostridium difficile in inflammatory bowel disease relapse. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1991;13(1):39–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Greenfield C, Aguilar Ramirez JR, Pounder RE, Williams T, Danvers M, Marper SR, et al. Clostridium difficile and inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 1983;24(8):713–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meyers S, Mayer L, Bottone E, Desmond E, Janowitz HD. Occurrence of Clostridium difficile toxin during the course of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 1981;80(4):697–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pickering LK, Engelkirk PG. Giardia lamblia. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1988;35(3):565–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ament ME, Rubin CE. Relation of giardiasis to abnormal intestinal structure and function in gastrointestinal immunodeficiency syndromes. Gastroenterology. 1972;62(2):216–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Levinson JD, Nastro LJ. Giardiasis with total villous atrophy. Gastroenterology. 1978;74(2 Pt 1):271–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sanderson IR, Walker-Smith JA. Indigenous amoebiasis: an important differential diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1984;289(6448):823.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pittman FE, Hennigar GR. Sigmoidoscopic and colonic mucosal biopsy findings in amebic colitis. Arch Pathol. 1974;97(3):155–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kaushik SP, Bassett ML, McDonald C, Lin BP, Bokey EL. Case report: gastrointestinal tuberculosis simulating Crohn disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1996;11(6):532–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jain R, Sawhney S, Bhargava DK, Berry M, Rai RR, Dasarathy S, et al. Diagnosis of ileocecal and colonic tuberculosis by colonoscopy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995;165(6):1391–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Makanjuola D. Is it Crohn disease or intestinal tuberculosis? CT analysis. Eur J Radiol. 1998;28(1):55–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bhargava DK, Kushwaha AK, Dasarathy S, Shriniwas, Chopra P. Endoscopic diagnosis of segmental colonic tuberculosis. Gastrointest Endosc. 1992;38(5):571–4.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Das HS, Rathi P, Sawant P, Chodankar CM, Vyas K, Patrawala V, et al. Colonic tuberculosis: colonoscopic appearance and clinico-pathologic analysis. J Assoc Physicians India. 2000;48(7):708–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alvares JF, Devarbhavi H, Makhija P, Rao S, Kottoor R. Clinical, colonoscopic, and histological profile of colonic tuberculosis in a tertiary hospital. Endoscopy. 2005;37(4):351–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Artru P, Lavergne-Slove A, Joly F, Bitoun A, Rambaud JC, Bouhnik Y. [Isolated jejunal tuberculosis mimicking Crohn disease. Diagnosis by push video-enteroscopy]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1999;23(10):1086–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Malik A, Saxena NC. Ultrasound in abdominal tuberculosis. Abdom Imaging. 2003;28(4):574–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pulimood AB, Ramakrishna BS, Kurian G, Peter S, Patra S, Mathan VI, et al. Endoscopic mucosal biopsies are useful in distinguishing granulomatous colitis due to Crohn disease from tuberculosis. Gut. 1999;45(4):537–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kaufman HS, Kahn AC, Iacobuzio-Donahue C, Talamini MA, Lillemoe KD, Hamilton SR. Cytomegaloviral enterocolitis: clinical associations and outcome. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42(1):24–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Revised criteria for diagnosis of coeliac disease. Report of Working Group of European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Arch Dis Child. 1990;65(8):909–11.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Talley NJ, Shorter RG, Phillips SF, Zinsmeister AR. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: a clinicopathological study of patients with disease of the mucosa, muscle layer, and subserosal tissues. Gut. 1990;31(1):54–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Whitington PF, Whitington GL. Eosinophilic gastroenteropathy in childhood. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1988;7(3):379–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Katz AJ, Twarog FJ, Zeiger RS, Falchuk ZM. Milk-sensitive and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy: similar clinical features with contrasting mechanisms and clinical course. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1984;74(1):72–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kay MH, Wyllie R, Steffen RM. The endoscopic appearance of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in infancy. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995;90(8):1361–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Khan S. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2005;19(2):177–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jona JZ, Belin RP, Burke JA. Eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract in children. Am J Dis Child. 1976;130(10):1136–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Booth IW, Chrystie IL, Levinsky RJ, Marshall WC, Pincott J, Harries JT. Protracted Diarrhoea, Immunodeficiency and viruses. Eur J Pediatr. 1982;138(3):271–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Filipovich AH, Mathur A, Kamat D, Shapiro RS. Primary immunodeficiencies: genetic risk factors for lymphoma. Cancer Res. 1992;52(19 Suppl):5465s–5467s.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Washington K, Stenzel TT, Buckley RH, Gottfried MR. Gastrointestinal pathology in patients with common variable immunodeficiency and X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Am J Surg Pathol. 1996;20(10):1240–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Teahon K, Webster AD, Price AB, Weston J, Bjarnason I. Studies on the enteropathy associated with primary hypogammaglobulinaemia. Gut. 1994;35(9):1244–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Conley ME, Park CL, Douglas SD. Childhood common variable immunodeficiency with autoimmune disease. J Pediatr. 1986;108(6):915–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bjarnason I, Sharpstone DR, Francis N, Marker A, Taylor C, Barrett M, et al. Intestinal inflammation, ileal structure and function in HIV. Aids. 1996;10(12):1385–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kotler DP, Gaetz HP, Lange M, Klein EB, Holt PR. Enteropathy associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1984;101(4):421–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lim SG, Condez A, Poulter LW. Mucosal macrophage subsets of the gut in HIV: decrease in antigen-presenting cell phenotype. Clin Exp Immunol. 1993;92(3):442–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ochs HD, Ament ME, Davis SD. Structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract in primary immunodeficiency syndromes (IDS) and in granulocyte dysfunction. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1975;11(1):199–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Abramowsky CR, Sorensen RU. Regional enteritis-like enteropathy in a patient with agammaglobulinemia: histologic and immunocytologic studies. Hum Pathol. 1988;19(4):483–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mulholland MW, Delaney JP, Simmons RL. Gastrointestinal complications of chronic granulomatous disease: surgical implications. Surgery. 1983;94(4):569–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Johnson FE, Humbert JR, Kuzela DC, Todd JK, Lilly JR. Gastric outlet obstruction due to X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. Surgery. 1975;78(2):217–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schappi MG, Smith VV, Goldblatt D, Lindley KJ, Milla PJ. Colitis in chronic granulomatous disease. Arch Dis Child. 2001;84(2):147–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hawkins HK, Heffelfinger SC, Anderson DC. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency: clinical and postmortem observations. Pediatr Pathol. 1992;12(1):119–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hazzan D, Seward S, Stock H, Zisman S, Gabriel K, Harpaz N, et al. Crohn-like colitis, enterocolitis and perianal disease in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Colorectal Dis. 2006;8(7):539–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sturgess I, Greenfield SM, Teare J, O’Doherty MJ. Ulcerative colitis developing after amoebic dysentery in a haemophiliac patient with AIDS. Gut. 1992;33(3):408–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bernstein CN, Ament M, Artinian L, Ridgeway J, Shanahan F, Bernstein BB, et al. Milk tolerance in adults with ulcerative colitis Crohn ileitis in a patient with longstanding HIV infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 1994;89(6):872–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Unsworth DJ, Walker-Smith JA. Autoimmunity in diarrhoeal disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1985;4(3):375–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Powell BR, Buist NR, Stenzel P. An X-linked syndrome of diarrhea, polyendocrinopathy, and fatal infection in infancy. J Pediatr. 1982;100(5):731–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Satake N, Nakanishi M, Okano M, Tomizawa K, Ishizaka A, Kojima K, et al. A Japanese family of X-linked auto-immune enteropathy with haemolytic anaemia and polyendocrinopathy. Eur J Pediatr. 1993;152(4):313–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wildin RS, Smyk-Pearson S, Filipovich AH. Clinical and molecular features of the immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X linked (IPEX) syndrome. J Med Genet. 2002;39(8):537–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hill SM, Milla PJ, Bottazzo GF, Mirakian R. Autoimmune enteropathy and colitis: is there a generalised autoimmune gut disorder? Gut. 1991;32(1):36–42.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lachaux A, Loras-Duclaux I, Bouvier R. Autoimmune enteropathy in infants. Pathological study of the disease in two familial cases. Virchows Arch. 1998;433(5):481–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Catassi C, Fabiani E, Spagnuolo MI, Barera G, Guarino A. Severe and protracted diarrhea: results of the 3-year SIGEP multicenter survey. Working Group of the Italian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology (SIGEP). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1999;29(1):63–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ventura A, Dragovich D. Intractable diarrhoea in infancy in the 1990s: a survey in Italy. Eur J Pediatr. 1995;154(7):522–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Khoo UY, Bjarnason I, Donaghy A, Williams R, Macpherson A. Antibodies to colonic epithelial cells from the serum and colonic mucosal washings in ulcerative colitis. Gut. 1995;37(1):63–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ricart E, Panaccione R, Loftus EV, Jr., Tremaine WJ, Harmsen WS, Zinsmeister AR, et al. Autoimmune disorders and extraintestinal manifestations in first-degree familial and sporadic inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004;10(3):207–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sartoris DJ, Harell GS, Anderson MF, Zboralske FF. Small-bowel lymphoma and regional enteritis: radiographic similarities. Radiology. 1984;152(2):291–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Isaacson PG. Gastrointestinal lymphomas of T- and B-cell types. Mod Pathol. 1999;12(2):151–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Martin IG, Aldoori MI. Immunoproliferative small intestinal disease: Mediterranean lymphoma and alpha heavy chain disease. Br J Surg. 1994;81(1):20–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gunasekaran TS, Berman J, Gonzalez M. Duodenojejunitis: is it idiopathic or is it Henoch-Schonlein purpura without the purpura? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;30(1):22–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Dahlander B, Odeberg H, Hansen BU. Polyarteritis nodosa: ischaemic intestinal pain successfully treated with nitroglycerin. J Intern Med. 1996;240(1):31–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gundogdu HZ, Kale G, Tanyel FC, Buyukpamukcu N, Hicsonmez A. Intestinal perforation as an initial presentation of polyarteritis nodosa in an 8-year-old boy. J Pediatr Surg. 1993;28(4):632–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lee EL, Smith HJ, Miller GL, 3rd, Burns DK, Weiner H. Ischemic pseudomembranous colitis with perforation due to polyarteritis nodosa. Am J Gastroenterol. 1984;79(1):35–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mazy V, Delforge M, Demoulin JC, Fontaine F, Gillard V, Dreze C. [Ischemic necrosis of the intestine: expression of a vasculitis]. Rev Med Liege. 1994;49(7):412–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Brogan PA, Malik M, Shah N, Kilday JP, Ramsay A, Shah V, et al. Systemic vasculitis: a cause of indeterminate intestinal inflammation. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006;42(4):405–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Blau EB, Morris RF, Yunis EJ. Polyarteritis nodosa in older children. Pediatrics. 1977;60(2):227–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Radhakrishnan KR, Kay M, Wyllie R, Hashkes PJ. Wegener granulomatosis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease in a pediatric patient. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006;43(3):391–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Akay N, Boyvat A, Heper AO, Soykan I, Arica IE, Bektas M, et al. Behcet’s disease-like presentation of bullous pyoderma gangrenosum associated with Crohn disease. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2006;31(3):384–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yim CW, White RH. Behcet’s syndrome in a family with inflammatory bowel disease. Arch Intern Med. 1985;145(6):1047–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Stringer DA, Cleghorn GJ, Durie PR, Daneman A, Hamilton JR. Behcet’s syndrome involving the gastrointestinal tract–a diagnostic dilemma in childhood. Pediatr Radiol. 1986;16(2):131–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gladman DD, Ross T, Richardson B, Kulkarni S. Bowel involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: Crohn disease or lupus vasculitis? Arthritis Rheum. 1985;28(4):466–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sultan SM, Ioannou Y, Isenberg DA. A review of gastrointestinal manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatology (Oxford). 1999;38(10):917–32.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Nelson J, Barron MM, Riggs JE, Gutmann L, Schochet SS, Jr. Cerebral vasculitis and ulcerative colitis. Neurology. 1986;36(5):719–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Garcia-Diaz M, Mira M, Nevado L, Galvan A, Berenguer A, Bureo JC. Retinal vasculitis associated with Crohn disease. Postgrad Med J. 1995;71(833):170–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sargent D, Sessions JT, Fairman RP. Pulmonary vasculitis complicating ulcerative colitis. South Med J. 1985;78(5):624–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Speiser JC, Moore TL, Zuckner J. Ulcerative colitis with arthritis and vasculitis. Clin Rheumatol. 1985;4(3):343–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Weizman Z. Vasculitis involving muscle associated with Crohn colitis. Gastroenterology. 1982;82(6):1483–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Saulsbury FT, Hart MH. Crohn disease presenting with Henoch-Schonlein purpura. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;31(2):173–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Levine SM, Hellmann DB, Stone JH. Gastrointestinal involvement in polyarteritis nodosa (1986–2000):presentation and outcomes in 24 patients. Am J Med. 2002;112(5):386–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Gryboski JD, Fischer R. “Apple-core” lesion of the colon in Crohn disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 1986;81(2):130–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Martinez CR, Siegelman SS, Saba GP, Diaconis JN, Yardley JH. Localized tumor-like lesions in ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease of the colon. Johns Hopkins Med J. 1977;140(5):249–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Peterson IM, Milburn J, Reynolds M. Bowel obstruction and an apple-core lesion in an 18-year-old man. J Fam Pract. 1990;31(1):85–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Griffin PM, Liff JM, Greenberg RS, Clark WS. Adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum in persons under 40 years old. A population-based study. Gastroenterology. 1991;100(4):1033–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Karnak I, Ciftci AO, Senocak ME, Buyukpamukcu N. Colorectal carcinoma in children. J Pediatr Surg. 1999;34(10):1499–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Chaimoff C, Dintsman M, Lurie M. Lesions mimicking malignant tumors of the large bowel. Am J Proctol Gastroenterol Colon Rectal Surg. 1981;32(6):12–5, 26.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ciftci AO, Akcoren Z, Tanyel FC, Senocak ME, Caglar M, Hicsonmez A. Inflammatory pseudotumor causing intestinal obstruction: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. J Pediatr Surg. 1998;33(12):1843–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lenaerts C, Roy CC, Vaillancourt M, Weber AM, Morin CL, Seidman E. High incidence of upper gastrointestinal tract involvement in children with Crohn disease. Pediatrics. 1989;83(5):777–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mashako MN, Cezard JP, Navarro J, Mougenot JF, Sonsino E, Gargouri A, et al. Crohn disease lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract: correlation between clinical, radiological, endoscopic, and histological features in adolescents and children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1989;8(4):442–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kirschner BS, Schmidt-Sommerfeld E, Stephens JK. Gastroduodenal Crohn disease in childhood. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1989;9(2):138–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rutgeerts P, Onette E, Vantrappen G, Geboes K, Broeckaert L, Talloen L. Crohn disease of the stomach and duodenum: A clinical study with emphasis on the value of endoscopy and endoscopic biopsies. Endoscopy. 1980;12(6):288–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Grubel P, Choi Y, Schneider D, Knox TA, Cave DR. Severe isolated Crohn-like disease of the gastroduodenal tract. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48(7):1360–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Danzi JT, Farmer RG, Sullivan BH, Jr., Rankin GB. Endoscopic features of gastroduodenal Crohn disease. Gastroenterology. 1976;70(1):9–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Markowitz J, Daum F, Aiges H, Kahn E, Silverberg M, Fisher SE. Perianal disease in children and adolescents with Crohn disease. Gastroenterology. 1984;86(5 Pt 1):829–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Galbraith SS, Drolet BA, Kugathasan S, Paller AS, Esterly NB. Asymptomatic inflammatory bowel disease presenting with mucocutaneous findings. Pediatrics. 2005;116(3):e439–44. Epub 2005 Aug 11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Shetty AK, Udall J, Jr., Schmidt-Sommerfeld E. Highly destructive perianal Crohn disease. J Natl Med Assoc. 1998;90(8):491–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Markowitz J, Grancher K, Rosa J, Simpser E, Aiges H, Daum F. Highly destructive perianal disease in children with Crohn disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995;21(2):149–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Gupta PJ. Ano-perianal tuberculosis - solving a clinical dilemma. Afr Health Sci. 2005;5(4):345–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Porzionato A, Alaggio R, Aprile A. Perianal and vulvar Crohn disease presenting as suspected abuse. Forensic Sci Int. 2005;155(1):24–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Muram D. Anal and perianal abnormalities in prepubertal victims of sexual abuse. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;161(2):278–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thierry Lamireau
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric GastroenterologyChildren’s HospitalBordeauxFrance

Personalised recommendations