Inorganic concretes are reviewed, emphasizing two major areas: construction concretes and high temperature (refractory) concretes. Although such materials are intended for completely different applications and markets, they have in common that they are made from inorganic ceramic oxides and both materials are used for structural purposes. Current applications and research topics representing new challenges are summarized.


Portland Cement Reinforce Concrete Steel Fiber Calcium Aluminate American Concrete Institute 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    J.A. Dobrowolski, Concrete Construction Handbook, 4th edn., NY, McGraw Hill, 1998.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    World Cement and Concrete Additives to 2006, The Freedonia Group, Inc. Cleveland, OH, January 2003:
  5. 5.
    D.J. Hannant, Fiber reinforcement in the cement and concrete industry, Mater. Sci. Tech., 11(9) 853–861 (1995).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    ASTM A 820: Specification for steel fibers for fiber reinforced concrete, The American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Report on Fiber Reinforced Concrete, ACI 544.1R–96, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Michigan,
  8. 8.
    Report on Fiber Reinforced Plastic Reinforcement for Concrete Structures, ACI 440R–96, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Michigan.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
    M.-T. Liang, P.-J. Su, Detection of the corrosion damage of rebar in concrete using impact-echo method, Cem. Concr. Res., 31, 1427–1436 (2001).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11. Low-Energy Alternative to Commercial Silica-Based Glass Fibers, MO-SCI Corporation Rolla, MO.
  12. 12.
    Blue Circle Rendaplus and Fibrocem GRC, Lafarge Cement,
  13. 13.
    R.E. Green (ed.), Civil structures in nondestructive characterization of materials VII, Proc. of the 8th International Symposium, Plenum Press, NY, 1997, pp. 475–586.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Wollbold, Ultrasonic-impulse-echo-technique, advantages of an online-imaging technique for the inspection of concrete,
  15. 15.
    M. Krause, Ch. Maierhofer, and H. Wiggenhauser, Thickness measurement of concrete elements using radar and ultrasonic impulse echo techniques, in Proc. 6th International Conf. on Structural Faults and Repair, Engineering Technics Press, London, 1995, pp. 17–24.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    The Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin, Germany,
  17. 17.
    M.J. Sansalone, and W.B. Street, Impact-Echo: Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete and Masonry, Bullbrier Press, Ithaca, NY, 1997.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Report on Nondestructive Test Methods for Evaluation of Concrete in Structures, ACI 228.2R–98, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Michigan.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Krause, M. Barmann, R. Frielinghaus, F. Kretzschmar, O. Kroggel, K.J. Langenberg, C. Maierhofer, W. Muller, J. Neisecke, M. Schickert, V. Schmitz, H. Wiggenhauser, and F. Wollbold, Comparison of pulse-echo methods for testing concrete, NDT&E Int., 30(4), 195–204 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A.D. Davis, The nondestructive impulse response test in north america: 1985–2001, NDT&E Int. June 2003, 36[4], 185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Sadri, Application of impact-echo technique in diagnoses and repair of stone masonry structures, NDT&E Int. (in press).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y.S. Cho, Non-destructive testing of high strength concrete using spectral analysis of surface waves, NDT&E Int. (in press).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    ASTM C 1383–98: Test Method for Measuring the P-Wave Speed and the Thickness of Concrete Plates using the Impact-Echo Method, The American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y.S. Cho, and F.-B. Lin, Spectral analysis of wave response of multi-layer thin cement mortar slab structures with finite thickness, NDT&E Int., 34, 115–122 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J.S. Popovics, W. Song, J.D. Achenbach, J.H. Lee, and R.F. Andre, One-side stresswave velocity measurement in concrete, J. Eng. Mech., 1346–1353 (1998).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Ohtsu, and T. Watanabe, Stack imaging of spectral amplitudes based on impact-echo for flaw detection,” NDT&E Int., 35, 189–196 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    K. Mori, A. Spagnoli, Y. Murakami, G. Kondo, and I. Torigoe, A new-non-contacting non-destructive testing method for defect detection in concrete, NDT&E Int., 35, 399–406 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    ASTM C 947: Test Method for Flexural Properties of Thin-Section Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Concrete, The American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    ASTM C 948: Test Method for Dry and Wet Bulk Density, Water Absorption, and Apparent Porosity of Thin Sections of Glass-Fiber Reinforced Concrete, The American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    ASTM E 136: Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C, The American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    ASTM E119: Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, The American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Center for Advanced Cement-Based Materials, Northwestern University:
  33. 33.
    L.J. Struble (ed.), Cements Research Progress 1995, The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH, 1997.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. Boyd, S. Mindess, and J. Skalny (eds.), Materials Science of Concrete: Cement and Concrete–Trends and Challenges, The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH, 2002.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vision 2030: A Vision for the U.S. Concrete Industry, December 2002:
  36. 36.
    Concrete Projects for Oil Industry, Heidrun & Troll, Norway,
  37. 37.
    D.J. Naus, Activities under the Concrete and Containment Technology Program at ORNL, Technical Report ORNL/TM-2002/213;
  38. 38.
    ISO 836:2001: Terminology for refractories, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    ISO 1927:1984: Prepared unshaped refractory materials (dense and insulating), International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Technology of Monolithic Refractories, Chap. 1 Revised edition, Plibrico Japan Co., Ltd., Tokyo Insho Kan Printing Co., Ltd., 1999.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. Routschka (ed.), Refractory Materials, Chap. 5, Vulkan-Verlag, Essen, Germany, 1997.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    S. Banerjee, Monolithic Refractories, Chap. 2, The American Ceramic Society/World Scientific, 1998.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Velez, A. Erkal, and R.E. Moore, Computer simulation of the dewatering of refractory concrete walls, J. Tech. Assoc. Refractories (Taikabutsu Overseas), 20(1), 5–9 (2000).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    G. Routschka, J. Potschke, and M. Ollig, Gas Permeability of Refractories at Elevated Temperatures, Proc. UNITECR’97, 1997, pp. 1550–1565.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    M.D.M. Innocentini, M.G. Silva, B.A. Menegazzo, and V.C. Pandolfelli, Permeability of refractory castables at high temperatures, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 84(3), 645–647 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Z.-X. Gong, and A.S. Mujumdar, Development of drying schedules for one-side-heating drying of refractory concrete slabs based on a finite element model, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 79(6) 1649–1658 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    W.L. Headrick, Quality time – automated equipment helps achieve rapid determination of gas permeability, Ceram. Ind., 148(2) 74–76 (1998).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    R.E. Moore, J.D. Smith, and T.P. Sander, Dewatering monolithic refractory castables: experimental and practical experience, Proc. UNITECR’97, 1997, pp. 573–583.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    D.A. Bell, A.D. Deighton, and F.T. Palin, Non-destructive testing of refractories, in advances in refractories for the metallurgical industries II, Proc. Int. Symposium of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Montreal, Quebec, August 24–29, 1996, pp. 191–207.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    R. Zoughi, L.K. Wu, and R.K. Moore, SOURCESCAT: a very-fine-resolution radar scatterometer, Microwave J., 28(11) 183–196 (1985).ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    B. Audoin, and C. Bescond, Measurement by laser-generated ultrasound of four stiffness coefficients of an anisotropic material at elevated temperatures, J. Nondestructive Eval. 16(2) 91–100 (1997).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    R.E. Dutton, and D.A. Stubbs, An ultrasonic sensor for high temperature materials, in Sensors and Modeling in Materials Processing: Techniques and Applications, S. Viswanathan, R.G. Reddy, and J.C. Malas (eds.), The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 1997, pp. 295–303.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    G.L. England, and N. Khoylou, Modeling of moisture behavior I normal and high performance concretes at elevated temperatures, in 4th International Symposium on the Utilization of High Strength/High Performance Concrete, May 29–31, 1995, pp. 53–68.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    S.D. Beyea, B.J. Balcom, T.W. Bremmer, P.J. Prado, D.P. Green, R.L. Armstrong, and P.E. Grattan-Bellew, Magnetic resonance imaging and moisture content profiles of drying concretes, Cem. Concr. Res., 28(3) 453–463 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    S. Peer, Nondestructive evaluation of moisture and chloride ingress in cement-based materials using near-field microwave techniques, M.S. Thesis, Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, MO, December 2002.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    S. Peer, K.E. Kurtis, and R. Zoughi, An electromagnetic model for evaluating temporal water distribution and movement in cyclically soaked mortar, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, April 2004, V.53[2], 406–415.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    R.G. Pileggi, A.R. Studart, V.C. Pandolfelli, and J. Gallo, How mixing affects the rheology of refractory Castables, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 80(6) 27–31 (2001); 80(7) 38–42 (2001).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    A.R. Studart, R.G. Pileggi, V.C. Pandolfelli, and J. Gallo, High-alumina multifunctional refractory castables, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 80(11) 34–40 (2001).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    C. Alt, L. Wong, and C. Parr, Measuring castable rheology by exothermic profile, Refract. Appl. News 8(2) 15–18 (2003).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Refractories, The Freedonia Group, Inc., Cleveland, OH, August 2003,
  61. 61.
    Refractory Concrete: State-of-the-Art Report, ACI 547.1R–87, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Michigan,
  62. 62.
    R.J. Magabhai, and F. Glasses (eds.), Calcium Aluminate Cements, Proc. Int. Symposium on Calcium Aluminate Cements, Edinburgh, Scotland, Maney Publications, UK, July 2001.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    K. Murakami, T. Yamato, Y. Ushijima, and K. Asano, The trend of monolithic refractory technology in Japan, Refract. Appl. News, 8(5) 12–16 (2003).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    P.C. Evangelista, C. Parr, and C. Revais, Control of formulation and optimization of self-flow castables based on pure calcium aluminates, Refract. Appl. News, 7(2) 14–18 (2002).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    T.A. Bier, C. Parr, C. Revais, and M. Vialle, Spinel forming castables: physical and chemical mechanisms during drying, Refract. Appl. News 5(4) 3–4 (2000).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    T. Richter, and D. McIntyre, Novel form free installation method for refractory castables, Refract. Appl. News 6(4) 3–5 (2001).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Velez, Magneco/Metrel, an evolution in refractory monolithics, Refract. Appl. News 6(1) 14 (2001).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    W.L. Headrick, and R.E. Moore, Sample preparation, thermal expansion, and Hasselman’s thermal shock parameters of self-flow refractory castables, Refract. Appl. News 7(1) 9–15 (2001).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    W.E. Lee, S. Zhang, and H. Sarpoolaky, Different types of in situ refractories, Refract. Appl. News 6(2) 3–4 (2001).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    S.L.C. da Silva, Improvement of the hydration resistance of magnesia and doloma using organosilicon compounds, Ph.D. Thesis, UMR, Ceramic Engineering Dept., 2000.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    U.S. Patent 5, 183, 648, Process for preparing magnesia having reduced hydration tendency and magnesia based castable, Assigned to Shell Research Ltd., 1993.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Refractories Applications & News, published by the University of Missouri-Rolla:
  73. 73.
    The Refractories Engineer, published by The Institute of Refractories Engineers (UK):
  74. 74.
    Taikabutsu, published by the Technical Association of Refractories of Japan:

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariano Velez
    • 1
  1. 1.Mo-Sci CorporationRollaUSA

Personalised recommendations