Assessment and Examinations

  • Susan M. Brookhart
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE, volume 21)

Teachers spend a great deal of their time in assessment or assessment-related activities (Stiggins & Conklin, 1992). This chapter describes the nature of assessment in classrooms and addresses two questions.

First, how do teachers determine whether students have mastered a body of knowledge? Teacher-made or teacher-selected classroom assessments take many forms, including paper and pencil tests and quizzes, performance assessments, oral questions and discussion, and portfolios. Some classroom assessments are used formatively in the learning process, and others are used summatively to assign marks or grades.


Educational Research Student Achievement Formative Assessment Summative Assessment Educational Measurement 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan M. Brookhart
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Advancing the Study of Teaching & Learning, School of EducationDuquesne UniversityPittsburgh

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