Diagnosis of Chronic Rhinosinusitis

  • Rodney J. Schlosser
  • Richard J. Harvey


Paranasal Sinus Nasal Polyp Nasal Obstruction Chronic Rhinosinusitis Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia 


  1. 1.
    Blackwell DL, Collins JG, Coles R. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 1997. Vital & Health Statistics. Series 10: Data From the National Health Survey. 2002(205): 1–109.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Collins JG. Prevalence of selected chronic conditions: United States, 1990–1992. Vital & Health Statistics. Series 10: Data From the National Health Survey. 1997(194): 1–89.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen Y, Dales R, Lin M. The epidemiology of chronic rhinosinusitis in Canadians. Laryngoscope 2003;113(7):1199–1205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shashy RG, Moore EJ, Weaver A. Prevalence of the chronic sinusitis diagnosis in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004;130(3):320–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Metson RB, Gliklich RE. Clinical outcomes in patients with chronic sinusitis. Laryngoscope 2000;110(3 pt 3):24–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lanza DC, Kennedy DW. Adult rhinosinusitis defined. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997;117(3 pt 2):S1–S7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bousquet J, Van Cauwenberge P, Khaltaev N, et al. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108(5 suppl):S147–S334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fokkens W, Lund V, Bachert C, et al. European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. Rhinology Suppl 2005 (18): 1–87.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Karlsson G, Holmberg K. Does allergic rhinitis predispose to sinusitis? Acta Oto-Laryngologica Suppl 1994;515:26–28; discussion 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harvey RJ, Lund VJ. Biofilms and chronic rhinosinusitis: systematic review of evidence, current concepts and directions for research. Rhinology 2007;45(1):3–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Benninger MS, Ferguson BJ, Hadley JA, et al. Adult chronic rhinosinusitis: definitions, diagnosis, epidemiology, and pathophysiology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;129 (3 suppl):S1–S32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roitt IM, Brostoff J, Male DK. Immunology, 5th ed. London: Mosby, 1998.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ragab S, Scadding GK, Lund VJ, et al. Treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis and its effects on asthma. Eur Respir J 2006;28(1):68–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hedman J, Kaprio J, Poussa T, et al. Prevalence of asthma, aspirin intolerance, nasal polyposis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a population-based study. Int J Epidemiol 1999;28(4):717–722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Berger G, Kattan A, Bernheim J, et al. Polypoid mucosa with eosinophilia and glandular hyperplasia in chronic sinusitis: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study. Laryngoscope 2002;112(4):738–745.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rudack C, Stoll W, Bachert C. Cytokines in nasal polyposis, acute and chronic sinusitis. Am J Rhinol 1998;12(6):383–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hamilos DL, Leung DY, Wood R, et al. Eosinophil infiltration in nonallergic chronic hyperplastic sinusitis with nasal polyposis (CHS/NP) is associated with endothelial VCAM-1 upregulation and expression of TNF-alpha. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1996;15(4):443–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Larsen K. The clinical relationship of nasal polyps to asthma. Allergy Asthma Proc 1996;17(5):243–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fokkens W, Lund VJ, Mullol J. European Academy of Allergology and Clinical I. European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. Rhinology Suppl 2007 (18): 1–87.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dykewicz MS. 7. Rhinitis and sinusitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111(2 suppl): S520–S529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fairley JW, Durham LH, Ell SR. Correlation of subjective sensation of nasal patency with nasal inspiratory peak flow rate. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 1993;18(1):19–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Simola M, Malmberg H. Sensation of nasal airflow compared with nasal airway resistance in patients with rhinitis. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 1997;22(3):260–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ottaviano G, Scadding GK, Coles S, et al. Peak nasal inspiratory flow; normal range in adult population. Rhinology 2006;44(1):32–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hirschberg A, Rezek O. Correlation between objective and subjective assessments of nasal patency. J Oto-Rhino-Laryngol Relat Spec 1998;60(4):206–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Numminen J, Ahtinen M, Huhtala H, et al. Comparison of rhinometric measurements methods in intranasal pathology. Rhinology 2003;41(2):65–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ostberg B, Winther B, Borum P, et al. Common cold and high-dose ipratropium bromide: use of anticholinergic medication as an indicator of reflex-mediated hypersecretion. Rhinology 1997;35(2):58–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Benninger MS, Payne SC, Ferguson BJ, et al. Endoscopically directed middle meatal cultures versus maxillary sinus taps in acute bacterial maxillary rhinosinusitis: a meta-analysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006;134(1):3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jones NS, Cooney TR. Facial pain and sinonasal surgery. Rhinology 2003;41(4):193–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Abu-Bakra M, Jones NS. Does stimulation of nasal mucosa cause referred pain to the face? Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 2001;26(5):430–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Piccirillo JF, Merritt MG, Jr., Richards ML. Psychometric and clinimetric validity of the 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;126(1):41–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Williams JW Jr, Roberts L Jr, Distell B, et al. Diagnosing sinusitis by X-ray: is a single Waters view adequate? [see comment]. J Gen Intern Med 1992;7(5):481–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mudgil SP, Wise SW, Hopper KD, et al. Correlation between presumed sinusitis-induced pain and paranasal sinus computed tomographic findings. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002;88(2):223–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Daudia AT, Jones NS. Facial migraine in a rhinological setting. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 2002;27(6):521–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jones NS. Sinogenic facial pain: diagnosis and management. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2005;38(6):1311–1325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bhattacharyya N. Clinical and symptom criteria for the accurate diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope 2006;116(7 suppl 2):1–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Doty RL, Shaman P, Dann M. Development of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test: a standardized microencapsulated test of olfactory function. Physiol Behav 1984;32(3):489–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    O'Hara J, Jones NS. "Post-nasal drip syndrome": most patients with purulent nasal secretions do not complain of chronic cough. Rhinology 2006;44(4):270–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bonfils P, Halimi P, Le Bihan C, et al. Correlation between nasosinusal symptoms and topographic diagnosis in chronic rhinosinusitis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2005;114(1 pt 1):74–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Anonymous. Zicam: safe cold cure? Consum Rep 2007;72(1):47.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Alexander TH, Davidson TM. Intranasal zinc and anosmia: the zinc-induced anosmia syndrome.[see comment]. Laryngoscope 2006;116(2):217–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chee L, Graham SM, Carothers DG, et al. Immune dysfunction in refractory sinusitis in a tertiary care setting. Laryngoscope 2001;111(2):233–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ellegard EK. The etiology and management of pregnancy rhinitis. Am J Respir Med 2003; 2(6):469–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Samet JM. Adverse effects of smoke exposure on the upper airway. Tobacco Control 2004; 13(suppl 1):i57–i60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Greisner WA III, Settipane GA. Hereditary factor for nasal polyps. Allergy Asthma Proc 1996;17(5):283–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rugina M, Serrano E, Klossek JM, et al. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of nasal polyposis in France; the ORLI group experience. Rhinology 2002;40(2):75–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lockey RF, Rucknagel DL, Vanselow NA. Familial occurrence of asthma, nasal polyps and aspirin intolerance. Ann Intern Med 1973;78(1):57–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Georgalas C, Sandhu G, Frosh A, et al. Cophenylcaine spray vs. placebo in flexible nasendoscopy: a prospective double-blind randomised controlled trial. Int J Clin Pract 2005;59(2):130–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cain AJ, Murray DP, McClymont LG, et al. The use of topical nasal anaesthesia before flexible nasendoscopy: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing cophenylcaine with placebo. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 2002;27(6):485–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sadek SA, De R, Scott A, et al. The efficacy of topical anaesthesia in flexible nasendoscopy: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 2001;26(1):25–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stankiewicz JA, Chow JM. Nasal endoscopy and the definition and diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;126(6):623–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Casiano RR. Correlation of clinical examination with computer tomography in paranasal sinus disease. Am J Rhinol 1997;11(3):193–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bhattacharyya T, Piccirillo J, Wippold FJ II. Relationship between patient-based descriptions of sinusitis and paranasal sinus computed tomographic findings. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997;123(11):1189–1192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kenny TJ, Duncavage J, Bracikowski J, et al. Prospective analysis of sinus symptoms and correlation with paranasal computed tomography scan. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001;125(1):40–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bhattacharyya N, Fried MP. The accuracy of computed tomography in the diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope 2003;113(1):125–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jones NS. CT of the paranasal sinuses: a review of the correlation with clinical, surgical and histopathological findings. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 2002;27(1):11–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hwang PH, Irwin SB, Griest SE, et al. Radiologic correlates of symptom-based diagnostic criteria for chronic rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;128(4):489–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Iinuma T, Hirota Y, Kase Y. Radio-opacity of the paranasal sinuses. Conventional views and CT. Rhinology 1994;32(3):134–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    McAlister WH, Lusk R, Muntz HR. Comparison of plain radiographs and coronal CT scans in infants and children with recurrent sinusitis [see comment]. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1989;153(6):1259–1264.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rodney J. Schlosser
    • 1
  • Richard J. Harvey
  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

Personalised recommendations