Advertisement

Etiology and Impact of Rhinosinusitis

  • Walleed Abuzaid
  • Erica R. Thaler
Chapter

Definition of Rhinosinusitis

Rhinosinusitis is a broad diagnostic label that encompasses a spectrum of disorders involving concurrent inflammation of the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses [1,2]. The wide range of clinical signs and symptoms associated with rhinosinusitis has complicated the establishment of a working clinical definition. Furthermore, patients with rhinosinusitis may present to a variety of practitioners including internists, family care physicians, pediatricians, allergists, pulmonologists, and otolaryngologists. A standardized definition of rhinosinusitis has been sought to facilitate communication among physicians and to promote uniform reporting of the disease. Such a definition facilitates further elucidation of the pathophysiology of sinusitis, the development of a clinical staging system, and the introduction of new treatments based on robust clinical data [3].

Past attempts at defining rhinosinusitis have been largely symptom based. Approximately 87% of...

Keywords

Cystic Fibrosis Chronic Rhinosinusitis Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Moraxella Catarrhalis Middle Meatus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Fokkens W, Lund V, Mullol J. European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007. Rhinology 2007:1–136.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Benninger MS, Ferguson BJ, Hadley JA, et al. Adult chronic rhinosinusitis: definitions, diagnosis, epidemiology, and pathophysiology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;129:S1–S32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lanza DC, Kennedy DW. Adult rhinosinusitis defined. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997;117:S1–S7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaliner MA, Osguthorpe JD, Fireman P, et al. Sinusitis: bench to bedside. Current findings, future directions. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997;116:S1–S20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fokkens W, Lund V, Bachert C, et al. EAACI position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps executive summary. Allergy 2005;60:583–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tahamiler R, Canakcioglu S, Ogreden S, et al. The accuracy of symptom-based definition of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergy 2007;62:1029–1032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stankiewicz JA, Chow JM. A diagnostic dilemma for chronic rhinosinusitis: definition accuracy and validity. Am J Rhinol 2002;16:199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stewart MG, Johnson RF. Chronic sinusitis: symptoms versus CT scan findings. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004;12:27–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Orlandi RR, Terrell JE. Analysis of the adult chronic rhinosinusitis working definition. Am J Rhinol 2002;16:7–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hwang PH, Irwin SB, Griest SE, et al. Radiologic correlates of symptom-based diagnostic criteria for chronic rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;128:489–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Anand VK. Epidemiology and economic impact of rhinosinusitis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2004;193:3–5.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gwaltney JM Jr, Phillips CD, Miller RD, et al. Computed tomographic study of the common cold. N Engl J Med 1994;330:25–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pleis JR, Lethbridge-Cejku M. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2005. Vital Health Stat 2006:1–153.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Annual Estimates of the Population by Selected Age Groups and Sex for the United States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 (NC-EST2006-02): Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau, 2007.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Diaz I, Bamberger DM. Acute sinusitis. Semin Respir infect 1995;10:14–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wald ER. Sinusitis in children. N Engl J Med 1992;326:319–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wald ER, Guerra N, Byers C. Upper respiratory tract infections in young children: duration of and frequency of complications. Pediatrics 1991;87:129–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gwaltney JM Jr. Acute community-acquired sinusitis. Clin Infect Dis 1996;23:1209–1223; quiz 1224–1205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gwaltney JM Jr, Scheld WM, Sande MA, et al. The microbial etiology and antimicrobial therapy of adults with acute community-acquired sinusitis: a fifteen-year experience at the University of Virginia and review of other selected studies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;90:457–461; discussion 462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Berg O, Carenfelt C, Kronvall G. Bacteriology of maxillary sinusitis in relation to character of inflammation and prior treatment. Scand J Infect Dis 1988;20:511–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brook I. Microbiology and management of sinusitis. J Otolaryngol 1996;25:249–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brook I. Microbiology and antimicrobial management of sinusitis. J Laryngol Otol 2005;119:251–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anon JB, Jacobs MR, Poole MD, et al. Antimicrobial treatment guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004;130:1–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Klossek JM, Chidiac C, Serrano E. Current position of the management of community-acquired acute maxillary sinusitis or rhinosinusitis in France and literature review. Rhinology 2005:4–33.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sande MA, Gwaltney JM. Acute community-acquired bacterial sinusitis: continuing challenges and current management. Clin Infect Dis 2004;39(suppl 3):S151–S158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Huang WH, Fang SY. High prevalence of antibiotic resistance in isolates from the middle meatus of children and adults with acute rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol 2004;18:387–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bhattacharyya N. Bacterial infection in chronic rhinosinusitis: a controlled paired analysis. Am J Rhinol 2005;19:544–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Araujo E, Palombini BC, Cantarelli V, et al. Microbiology of middle meatus in chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol 2003;17:9–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Krause HF. Allergy and chronic rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;128:14–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Savolainen S. Allergy in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis. Allergy 1989;44:116–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Emanuel IA, Shah SB. Chronic rhinosinusitis: allergy and sinus computed tomography relationships. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;123:687–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Krouse JH. Computed tomography stage, allergy testing, and quality of life in patients with sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;123:389–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ramadan HH, Fornelli R, Ortiz AO, et al. Correlation of allergy and severity of sinus disease. Am J Rhinol 1999;13:345–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Karlsson G, Holmberg K. Does allergic rhinitis predispose to sinusitis? Acta Oto-Laryngol 1994;515:26–28; discussion 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jani AL, Hamilos DL. Current thinking on the relationship between rhinosinusitis and asthma. J Asthma 2005;42:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lundback B. Epidemiology of rhinitis and asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28(suppl 2):3–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hamilos DL. Chronic sinusitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:213–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Settipane GA. Epidemiology of nasal polyps. Allergy Asthma Proc 1996;17:231–236.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bresciani M, Paradis L, Des Roches A, et al. Rhinosinusitis in severe asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107:73–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Newman LJ, Platts-Mills TA, Phillips CD, et al. Chronic sinusitis. Relationship of computed tomographic findings to allergy, asthma, and eosinophilia. JAMA 1994;271:363–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sih T. Correlation between respiratory alterations and respiratory diseases due to urban pollution. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1999;49(suppl 1):S261–S267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Min YG, Jung HW, Kim HS, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of chronic sinusitis in Korea: results of a nationwide survey. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1996;253:435–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wolf C. Urban air pollution and health: an ecological study of chronic rhinosinusitis in Cologne, Germany. Health Place 2002;8:129–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pedersen M, Sakakura Y, Winther B, et al. Nasal mucociliary transport, number of ciliated cells, and beating pattern in naturally acquired common colds. Eur J Respir Dis 1983;128 (pt 1):355–365.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hinni ML, McCaffrey TV, Kasperbauer JL. Early mucosal changes in experimental sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1992;107:537–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Aktas D, Kalcioglu MT, Kutlu R, et al. The relationship between the concha bullosa, nasal septal deviation and sinusitis. Rhinology 2003;41:103–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cannon CR. Endoscopic management of concha bullosa. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1994;110:449–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bolger WE, Butzin CA, Parsons DS. Paranasal sinus bony anatomic variations and mucosal abnormalities: CT analysis for endoscopic sinus surgery. Laryngoscope 1991;101:56–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jones NS, Strobl A, Holland I. A study of the CT findings in 100 patients with rhinosinusitis and 100 controls. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 1997;22:47–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Calhoun KH, Waggenspack GA, Simpson CB, et al. CT evaluation of the paranasal sinuses in symptomatic and asymptomatic populations. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1991;104: 480–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kayalioglu G, Oyar O, Govsa F. Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus bony variations: a computed tomographic study. Rhinology 2000;38:108–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yasan H, Dogru H, Baykal B, et al. What is the relationship between chronic sinus disease and isolated nasal septal deviation? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005;133:190–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Holbrook EH, Brown CL, Lyden ER, et al. Lack of significant correlation between rhinosinusitis symptoms and specific regions of sinus computer tomography scans. Am J Rhinol 2005;19:382–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chee L, Graham SM, Carothers DG, et al. Immune dysfunction in refractory sinusitis in a tertiary care setting. Laryngoscope 2001;111:233–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Garcia-Rodriguez JF, Corominas M, Fernandez-Viladrich P, et al. Rhinosinusitis and atopy in patients infected with HIV. Laryngoscope 1999;109:939–944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Savage DG, Taylor P, Blackwell J, et al. Paranasal sinusitis following allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Bone Marrow Transplant 1997;19:55–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    DelGaudio JM. Direct nasopharyngeal reflux of gastric acid is a contributing factor in refractory chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope 2005;115:946–957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Contencin P, Narcy P. Nasopharyngeal pH monitoring in infants and children with chronic rhinopharyngitis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1991;22:249–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Phipps CD, Wood WE, Gibson WS, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux contributing to chronic sinus disease in children: a prospective analysis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;126:831–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Barbero GJ. Gastroesophageal reflux and upper airway disease. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 1996;29:27–38.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bothwell MR, Parsons DS, Talbot A, et al. Outcome of reflux therapy on pediatric chronic sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;121:255–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dinis PB, Subtil J. Helicobacter pylori and laryngopharyngeal reflux in chronic rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006;134:67–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sobol SE, Frenkiel S, Nachtigal D, et al. Clinical manifestations of sinonasal pathology during pregnancy. J Otolaryngol 2001;30:24–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ray NF, Baraniuk JN, Thamer M, et al. Healthcare expenditures for sinusitis in 1996: contributions of asthma, rhinitis, and other airway disorders. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103: 408–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sharp HJ, Denman D, Puumala S, et al. Treatment of acute and chronic rhinosinusitis in the United States, 1999–2002. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007;133:260–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Benninger MS, Sedory Holzer SE, Lau J. Diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis: summary of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research evidence-based report. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;122:1–7.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gliklich RE, Metson R. Economic implications of chronic sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998;118:344–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Murphy MP, Fishman P, Short SO, et al. Health care utilization and cost among adults with chronic rhinosinusitis enrolled in a health maintenance organization. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;127:367–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gonzales R, Steiner JF, Lum A, et al. Decreasing antibiotic use in ambulatory practice: impact of a multidimensional intervention on the treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis in adults. JAMA 1999;281:1512–1519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gonzales R, Malone DC, Maselli JH, et al. Excessive antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:757–762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dosh SA, Hickner JM, Mainous AG III, et al. Predictors of antibiotic prescribing for nonspecific upper respiratory infections, acute bronchitis, and acute sinusitis. An UPRNet study. Upper Peninsula Research Network. J Fam Pract 2000;49:407–414.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bhattacharyya N. The economic burden and symptom manifestations of chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol 2003;17:27–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Piccirillo JF, Merritt MG Jr, Richards ML. Psychometric and clinimetric validity of the 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;126:41–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gliklich RE, Metson R. Techniques for outcomes research in chronic sinusitis. Laryngoscope 1995;105:387–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Goetzel RZ, Hawkins K, Ozminkowski RJ, et al. The health and productivity cost burden of the “top 10" physical and mental health conditions affecting six large U.S. employers in 1999. J Occup Environ Med / Am Coll Occup Environ Med 2003;45:5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Otorhinolaryngology – Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations