Advertisement

Conservation, Community, and Livelihoods: Sustaining, Renewing, and Adapting Cultural Connections to the Land

  • Fikret Berkes
  • Gary P. Kofinas
  • F. Stuart ChapinIII

Abstract

Since most of the world’s biodiversity is not in protected areas but on lands used by people, conserving species and ecosystems depends on our understanding of social systems and their interactions with ecological systems. Involving people in conservation requires paying attention to livelihoods and creating a local stake for conservation. It also requires maintaining cultural connections to the land and at times restoring and cultivating new connections. This chapter addresses human-wildlife-land interactions across a range of hinterland ecosystems, from relatively undisturbed “wildlands" to more intensively manipulated rural agricultural areas where local communities are an integral component of the landscape. These regions commonly comprise unique ecosystems that are in many cases important hotspots of global biodiversity. Here we examine three case studies – Ojibwa and Cree use of boreal forest biodiversity, the community-based programs for elephant conservation in sub-Saharan Africa, and Gwich’in engagement in international management of the Porcupine Caribou Herd in Arctic North America. The three cases highlight the relationship between conservation and community livelihoods to illustrate strategies that communities have used and the challenges they face to sustain land, resources, and their own well-being.

Keywords

Protected Area Indigenous People Community Livelihood Sacred Grove Conservation Objective 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Additional Readings

  1. Anderson, M.K. 2005. Tending the Wild: Native American Knowledge and the Management of California’s Natural Resources. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  2. Bawa, K.S., R. Seidler, and P.H. Raven 2004. Reconciling conservation paradigms. Conservation Biology 18:859–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berkes, F. 2008. Sacred Ecology. 2nd Edition. Routledge, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Borgerhoff Mulder, M., and P. Coppolillo. 2005. Conservation: Linking Ecology, Economics, and Culture. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  5. Brechin, S.R., P.R. Wilshusen, C.L. Fortwangler and P.C. West (eds). 2003. Contested Nature: Promoting International Biodiversity with Social Justice in the Twenty-first Century. State University of New York Press, Albany.Google Scholar
  6. Gomez-Pampa, A. and A. Kaus 1992. Taming the wilderness myth. BioScience 42:271–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Posey, D.A. (ed). 1999. Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity. UNEP and Intermediate Technology Publications, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  8. Taylor, B.R. (ed). 2005. Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature. Thoemmes Continuum, London.Google Scholar
  9. Turner, N.J. 2005. The Earth’s Blanket. Traditional Teachings for Sustainable Living. Douglas & McIntyre, Vancouver; and University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fikret Berkes
    • 1
  • Gary P. Kofinas
    • 2
  • F. Stuart ChapinIII
    • 3
  1. 1.Natural Resources InstituteUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada R3T 2N2
  2. 2.School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences and Institute of Arctic BiologyUniversity of Alaska, FairbanksFairbanksUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Arctic BiologyUniversity of Alaska FairbanksFairbanksUSA

Personalised recommendations