Sustaining Livelihoods and Human Well-Being during Social-Ecological Change

  • Gary P. Kofinas
  • F. Stuart ChapinIII


Social processes strongly influence the dynamics of social-ecological responses to change. In Chapter 2, we described the ecological processes that govern the flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. Sustainability of these flows depends not only on ecosystems, but also on human actions that are motivated, in part, by desires and needs for these services. Many of the social and ecological slow variables that determine the long-term dynamics of social-ecological systems act primarily through their effects on human well-being (see Chapter 1).


Social Capital Ecosystem Service Social Learning West Nile Virus Adaptive Capacity 
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Additional Readings

  1. Adger, W.N. 2006. Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change 16:268–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  3. Kasperson, R.E., K. Dow, E.R.M. Archer, D. Caceres, T.E. Downing, et al. 2005. Vulnerable peoples and places. Pages 143–164 in R. Hassan, R. Scholes, and N. Ash, editors. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Island Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  4. Nelson, D.R., W.N. Adger, and K. Brown. 2007. Adaptation to environmental change: Contributions of a resilience framework. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 32:doi 10.1146/ Scholar
  5. Petschel-Held, G., A. Block, M. Cassel-Gintz, J. Kropp, M.K.B. Ludeke, et al. 1999. Syndromes of global change: A qualitative modeling approach to assist global environmental management. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 4:295–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Smit, B. and J. Wandel. 2006. Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change 16:282–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Turner, B.L., II, R.E. Kasperson, P.A. Matson, J.J. McCarthy, R.W. Corell, et al. 2003. A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100:8074–8079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary P. Kofinas
    • 1
  • F. Stuart ChapinIII
  1. 1.School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences and Institute of Arctic BiologyUniversity of Alaska FairbanksFairbanksUSA

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