This book identifies numerous ways that ecological stewardship can be a source of income for producers. Payments for ecosystem services (PES) do not only consist of hydrological or soil carbon sequestration projects but include payments to enhance wildlife that provide recreational benefits, payments for cultural practices that will reduce likelihood of disease, and payments for protection against deforestation. PES programs can benefit both crop and livestock farming, forestry and range management, and in cases not presented here (Waibel & Zilberman, 2007) aquaculture. The benefits of PES can include pollution reduction, preservation of natural resources, and generation of recreational and ecological amenities. The diversity of possibilities emphasizes the importance of ecological and environmental entrepreneurship, namely, the capacity to identify opportunities for increasing the resource base of farmers while improving environmental qualities.

The ecological entrepreneurship...


Environmental Service Large Farmer Soil Carbon Sequestration Distributional Objective Local Subsidy 
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  1. Waibel H, Zilberman D (eds.) (2007) International research on natural resource management: Advances in impact assessment, FAO, Rome. CAB International, Oxfordshire, UK; Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar

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© FAO 2009

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  • David Zilberman

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